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Relationships between Resource Governance and Resource Conflict
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
This paper highlights the relationships between resource rights, governance practices and conflict in Nepal. The discussion is focused on policies, strategies, laws and regulations, and decisions and actual governing practices in natural resources. The good governance framework is used as a conceptual basis to analyse the relationships. This framework is for the purpose of this paper consensus oriented, participatory, guided by the rule of law, effective and efficient, accountable and transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive. Within this framework, the paper examines the role of resource governance in creating or minimising scarcity and conflict in Nepal. It is based on my current research project on ‘livelihood security, environmental security and conflict mitigation’ in Nepal. It highlights power relations, feelings of injustice, mistrust, the intervention of new technologies, contradiction between customary practices and statutory laws as sources of research. Resource conflicts produce both positive and negative consequences and alter existing social relations, as they induce change in resource management regimes, policy process, livelihood strategies, land use patterns, gender relations, power structures, and individual and collective behaviour. This paper also establishes the linkages between resource conflict and the ongoing Maoist insurgency in Nepal. Journal of Legal Pluralism 2004, No. 50, pp. 71-100 Available for purchase from: Journal of Legal Pluralism
New Figures for Old Stories: Migration and Remittances in Nepal
Kollmair, Michael
"Labour migration and remittances are major economic mainstays for Nepal’s economy. However, there is still insufficient documentation on scale and significance of this process. Estimations of migration figures suggest that real numbers are several times higher than official statistics show. Therefore this article contributes to the emerging debate of the last years comparing latest national statistics with own empirical data. The paper concludes that the total numbers of migrants calculated by the authors closely corresponds with official statistics, while amount of remittances seems to be higher indeed, highlighting once more that labour migration and remittances are an important mainstay of Nepal’s economy." Migration Letters 2006, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 151-160 Download from: Migration Letters
Migration Patterns and Remittance Transfer in Nepal
Thieme, Susan
"International labour migration is a main livelihood strategy for many people in Nepal. This article analyses the migration process from the perspective of migrants and their non-migrating household members, exploring the institutional regulations that structure the organization of migration and the cash flows involved. The results are based on a case study conducted in Sainik Basti, Western Nepal, in 2002. The article shows that for different destinations there are specific ways of organizing migration. These country specific ways of organizing migration demand specific assets from prospective migrants and their household members and, therefore, influence their choice of destination. Savings are remitted back home mainly by carrying them personally or by using the hundi system. [...]" International Migration 2005, Vol. 43, No. 5, pp. 59–98 Available from: Blackwell Synergy
Nepal Migration Year Book 2011
Ghimire Bhattarai, Anita
The general objective of Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 is to provide factual, comprehensive and non-partisan data and analysis of the developments and trends of migration to, within, and from Nepal, and to put this into context. This volume covers the period of January-December 2011. More specific objectives are: - To review the general status and trends of migration for the stated period; - To account for national laws, regulations, plans and programs on migration; - To review efforts by both public and private sector to protect the migrants. Download book
Livelihood Strategy and Occupational Vulnerability of Street Ice Cream Vendors in Kathmandu Valley
Paneru, Indra Prasad
Urban centers are dynamic places for different business and exchange activities. Earning their livelihood by street ice-cream vending in urban Kathmandu is also a business for a group of people. This study examines the livelihood strategy and assets, socio-economic background, migration status, working condition and occupational vulnerability of street ice-cream vendors in Kathmandu valley. Master's Thesis at Tribhuvan University under the Geography Department Download
Transnationale soziale Netzwerke und Migration
Thieme, Susan
"Kann Migration zur Reduzierung von Armut beitragen? Immer häufiger betonen internationale Entwicklungsorganisationen die wachsende Bedeutung und das große Potenzial der Migration. Gleichzeitig hat sich die Migrationsforschung facettenreich weiterentwickelt und befasst sich unter anderem auch mit der Frage, wie Migrationshaushalte eine plurilokale Lebensunterhaltsstrategie meistern. Der Artikel zeigt Beispiele von Organisationsformen, mit denen Migrierende aus dem ruralen Nepal die Möglichkeit schaffen, in der Megastadt Delhi ihre Existenz zu sichern. Dabei wird ersichtlich, dass der Beitrag von Migration zur Existenzsicherung weit über die Bedeutung von Geldüberweisungen hinausgeht." Geographische Rundschau 2006, Vol. 58, No. 10, pp. Order from: Geographische Rundschau
Land Politics and Conflict in Nepal:
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Land has always been one of the major causes of armed conflict and structural violence in Nepal. Land is also a source of feudal socio-economic structure in the country. Hence, examining land issues from these perspectives is crucially important to initiate fresh debates on the potential contribution of land reform in the transformation process and addressing the problems of landlessness in the changing political context. This is an effort of researchers and practitioners to examine various aspects of land related issues in Nepal. This work particularly focuses on conflict and exclusion of marginalized people in access to and control of land resources and associated power dynamics in Nepal.
Livelihood Strategies of the Street Vendors
Bhattarai, Madhav
This study has been made among the street vendors of KM who are using the street public space and pavement of KM for their survival. Within the KM, Ratnapark-Asan-Indrachowk (core of city), Koteswor, Kalanki and Balaju Buspark (main entry points of KM) are selected as study areas. Among the street vendors, the study focused on watch and bag sellers. Among the watch sellers and bag sellers a sample of 64 was selected and asked some questions. Other vendors were observed on the field study. The major methods of primary data collection used in this study were questionnaires, field observation, focus group discussion and in-depth interviews. Master's Thesis at Kathmandu University Download
Livelihood Strategy of Pode Community
Linkha, T.R.
Master's Thesis at Kathmandu University Download
Tenancy System and Land Productivity in Masuriya VDC, Kailali
Rai, Kalawati
Land is more than just a physical entity for an agricultural society where access to and control over it determines the socio-economic structure and identity. The objectives of this study are to assess the income sources of the tenant farmers, to analyze the investment-production relation under the tenancy system, to analyze how the tenancy system affects the productivity of the land and to examine the power relations between the land tillers and the land owners. Master's Thesis at Kathmandu University Download
"I am the Household Head now!"
Kaspar, Heidi
Kathmandu, Nepal Institute of Development Studies (NIDS)
Social Networks and Migration
Thieme, Susan
Based on existing research about the importance of migration, questions need to be raised about how Nepalese migrants live in receiving countries, what individual or structural backgrounds enable migrants and their families to benefit from migration, and what prevents them from doing so. How do migrants manage their daily lives, how do they gain access to resources, and what are their reasons for doing so? The principal aim of the study is to enhance understanding of the process of migration and its contribution to the livelihoods of people from rural areas in Nepal. It also aims to help develop interventions that will maximise the benefits of migration. NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 15 Bern, NCCR North-South
"But now men also listen to the women"
Locher, Martina
Asiatische Studien / Études Asiatiques 2007, LXI - 4/2007, pp. 1113-1139. Order this publication from: Peter Lang Publishing Group
Changing Political Context, New Power Relations and Hydro-Conflict in Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In: Rotberg F, Swain A, editors. Natural Resources Security in South Asia: Nepal's Water. Stockholm: Institute for Security and Development Policy, pp 15-65. Download from: www.silkroadstudies.org
Access to Land Resource: Dalits and their Livelihood Insecurity.
Nepali, Purna Bahadur
Historical distribution of land in Nepal does not reflect a spirit of social justice. Only a few people owned or had control over land in the name of Birta, Jagir and other land entitlements. In an agrarian society like Nepal, there is no off-farm opportunity to make better income. Also, there is no social security policy for the Dalits so that they constantly face hunger and food insecurity. Dalits' livelihood is miserable and vulnerable. Various kinds of informal institutions such as the Balighare, Khalo and Khan Pratha existed in the traditional agrarian system of Nepal. These were discriminatory and exploitive in form. This unjust situation is further compounded by the Hindu caste system of untouchability. Hence, Dalits today are marginalized people on each sphere of life, and their human rights are being continuously violated. Therefore, the state has to take some bold steps in enunciating a future scientific land reform program in order to bring about equitable changes. In: Pyakuryal KN, Upreti BR, Sharma SR, editors. Nepal: Transition to Transformation. Kathmandu: HNRSC, NCCR North-South, pp. 163-184. Download
Inclusion and Transformation
Pyakuryal , Kailash Nath
This book on "Nepal: Transition to Transformation" is the outcome of a national conference jointly organized by the Kathmandu University (KU) and the Swiss National Centre for Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and held in Kathmandu on June 22, 2007. All the papers included here were originally presented in that conference. In sum, the papers in this volume provide valuable insights in the state-of-art of the comtemporary Nepal and the roadmap that lies ahead for it. In particular, issues relatd to the post-conflict situation and ways to transform Nepal are well described. I strongly believe that the discourse contained in these papers as well as analysis of issues in relation to transition and transformation could be of interest to the policy makers, planners, politicians, researchers and scholars in Nepal and outside alike. In: Pyakuryal KN, Upreti BR, Sharma SR, editors. Nepal: Transition to Transformation. Kathmandu: HNRSC, NCCR North-South, pp. 1-13. Download
Pluralism, Diversity and National Integration.
Pyakuryal , Kailash Nath
Nepal is still emerging as a nation state. Consequently, a great deal of social conflict accompanies such nation building. Empirical evidences show that differences exist between different caste and ethnic groups and also between geographical regions. Cultural discrimination on the basis of caste, ethnicity, religion, language, and regionalism is equally an inherent phenomenon of statehood and creation of minorities in Nepal. The key to attaining national integration is respecting and recognizing pluralism and diversity and empowering various groups of people on equal footings. Nepal is a country where none of the ethnic/caste groups is the majority. Social transformation calls for a thorough reform in legislation. The time has come to acknowledge that is is necessary to work out, with involvement of all social actors, a new body of laws consonant with that long-standing cultural and ethnic diversity which represents the deep roots of real Nepal. In: Pyakuryal KN, Upreti BR, Sharma SR, editors. Nepal: Transition to Transformation. Kathmandu: HNRSC, NCCR North-South, pp. 185-199. Download
Moving ahead: From Transition to Transformation.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Nepal's transition can be successful only when Nepali politicians can keep aside their vested and narrow political interests and collectively work for achieving broader national interests. Different groups with their various demands at present wait for the accomplishment of the constituent assembly elections and the formation of an elected government. It is crucially important to review the past achievements and the past problems, focusing on the processes, mechanisms, outcomes, and the spirit of various agreements (by avoiding to engage in blames and counter blames), and coming forward with commitments to order new institutional arrangements and appropriate processes and procedures that can ensure a smooth transition from a state of war to the conditions of peace, by holding the constituent assembly election, and by honestly addressing the grievances of the Nepalese people. In: Pyakuryal KN, Upreti BR, Sharma SR, editors. Nepal: Transition to Transformation. Kathmandu: HNRSC, NCCR North-South, pp. 201-222. Download
Role of Foreign Aid in Transformation.
Sharma, Sagar Raj
In short, the general perception among the Nepalese is that foreign aid made life more pleasant and rewarding for a limited few and that it has done little to promote the production of wealth, or to breed political responsibility, or to encourage people to help themselves. By doing so it has allowed successive governments to avoid correcting their mistakes. In order to transform this nation into a 'New Nepal', all the stakeholders need to reform themselves, starting from the political parties to the donor community. The stubborn and un-reforming attitude of the political parties is being assisted by the 'business as usual' attitude of the other stakeholders. AID cannot be blamed for all the mistakes made in the projects it bankrolls. However, by providing a seemingly endless credit line to governments regardless of their policies, AID effectively discourages governments from learning from and correcting their mistakes. In: Pyakuryal KN, Upreti BR, Sharma SR, editors. Nepal: Transition to Transformation. Kathmandu: HNRSC, NCCR North-South, pp. 49-75. Download
Enhancing Women's Participation in Mountain Tourism, Prospects and Challenges.
Upadhaya, P.K.
Women's participation in mountain tourism in Nepal started during the 1920s and 1930s with portering. It has now reached a stage, though in small numbers, where female trek leaders are leading solo women tourist trekkers; working as team leaders in mountain expeditions; and operating hotels, lodges, restaurants, trekking and travel agencies in top management positions. However, most of their involvement is at lower level jobs in various organized sub-sectors of tourism. Will balanced development of the tourism sector be possible without enhancing the equitable share of women workers in the access to and control over the benefits from mountain tourism in a context where more than fifty percent of total numbers engaged in the industry are women? This brief paper attempts to answer this question. There is a great need for a pro-women (focusing on protecting and safeguarding of women) tourism policy, action plan and programs to increase the number of mountain women improve their status in mountain tourism. Download from: Mountain Forum
Transformative Land Reform in Nepal: Ways Forward.
Basnet, Jagat
In this chapter, the understanding of land reform, historic control over land, current situation, power structure of land, debate of land reform since the start of the Maoist movement to the drafting of the Interim Constitution and alternative land reform models are presented. Since land is both political and class issue, economic stability and social justice cannot be established without addressing it. There is no other alternative to a transformative land reform in New Nepal. Hence, in this chapter, attempts are made to explain the concept of a transformatice land reform and its importance in achieving stability, social justice, economic growth and protecting livelihoods of the poor farmers. In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Basnet J, editors. Land Politics and Conflict in Nepal: Realities and Potentials for Agrarian Transformation. Kathmandu: Community Self Reliance Centre (CSRC), South Asia Regional Coordination Office of NCCR North-South and Human and Natural Resources Studies Centre (HNRSC), Kathmandu University, pp. 243-265.
Haruwas and Charuwas of Tarai.
Deuja, J.
Haliyas and Haruwas, despite ploughing the landlord's land for generations, are not entitled to tenancy rights. According to the Land Reform Act, people tilling land should be granted those rights. This is a serious problem, and only by redistributing land, the inhumane bonded labor system can be abolished, which is possible only by a radical land reform programme from the state. Transformative land reform is possible only by restructuring the state, with total dismantling of the feudal system. At least in the short run, land should be granted to those who have been cultivating since generations, even if the possess no land registration certificates. Exploitation by landlords, lack of alternative mode of livelihood, heavy dependence on agriculture, and the changing livelihood pattern, etc. are jeopardizing the livelihood of Haliyas/Haruwas and Charuwas. Therefore, context specific support programmes should be combined with a transformative land reform to address the problems of Haruwas, Haliyas and Charuwas. In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Basnet J, editors. Land Politics and Conflict in Nepal: Realities and Potentials for Agrarian Transformation. Kathmandu: Community Self Reliance Centre (CSRC), South Asia Regional Coordination Office of NCCR North-South and Human and Natural Resources Studies Centre (HNRSC), Kathmandu University, pp. 210-218.
Inclusive Land Policy and Human Security in Post-Conflict Situation: A Study of Parsauni and Pratapur VDCs of Nawalparasi District
Shrestha , Lisa
Land is a very strategic socio-economic asset in an agrarian economy where wealth and survival are measured by control of, and access to, land. It is also the source for inequity, power struggle and conflict. This study is thus carried out with an objective to examine the inter-relationship between access to land and human security in post conflict situation. It is found that the policy and power plays a significant role in creating land based inequities. The role of migrant landholders is found to be more significant in the armed conflict than the indigenous groups. The sole reason for armed conflict is found to be the land based inequities and power relation between the large and marginal landholders. However, the real actors are not satisfied with the outcome of the armed conflict as land based inequities are left unaddressed. As a consequence, they feel there are chances of another form of armed conflict. Masters Thesis at Kathmandu University Download
Domestic Workers in Their Living: A Study of Selected Localities in Kathmandu District
Gotame, M
The present study attempts to examine issues of domestic workers by analyzing their socio-economic status, gender division of labor and power relations in their working place. These are general but important and often ignored aspects of domestic workers. Their socio-economic status suggests that most are not poor, but there are varying reasons why they moved to urban areas and started to work as domestic workers, mostly by their parent’s choice. Domestic workers are mostly female. However, males too have entered this sphere. Therefore, the study’s conclusion is that the male invasion in the profession is narrowing the gap in the division of labor. A very positive sign is that the majority of the domestic workers are attending school. They are also allowed to use their free time for entertainment. Further, there has been a change in the way of addressing the owners, showing a change of attitude of the owners towards the workers. This change may be a positive first step towards a shift in power relations. Master Thesis at Kathmandu Tribhuvan University. Download
Analyzing the Effect of Economic Class and Status on Disaster Vulnerability in Parsauni and Pratapur VDCs of Nawalparasi District
Joshi, Surya Raj
Recently, there has been a shift in disaster Studies and the need to study disaster through sociological perspective is increasingly being stressed. However, in the context of Nepal the studies about these relations are rare. Being a society with long existing social disparity it is a matter of study if socioeconomic factors have played a role in influencing the vulnerability of people. The study found that social factors are major criteria for disaster vulnerability. Poor and marginalized people take disaster as a part of their life, while the richest have very little concern for it. Thus, the study concludes that poverty and different social and economical disparities are responsible for disaster vulnerability. Master Thesis at Kathmandu University Download
Impacts of armed conflict on mountain biodiversity.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Nepal's armed conflict (1996-2006) has created enormous impact in biodiversity, the economy and society. This paper discusses only the impacts on biodiversity. The main negative impacts documented from the study were: A loss of unique habitats for wildlife within ecosystems once the vegetation for such specialised habitat were destroyed; loss of medicinal plant resources after the forests were used as battlefields; and severe disruption of conservation activities, leading to intensified unsustainable exploitation as law and order was broken down by the armed conflict. In: Mountain Forum Bulletin 9(2): 11-12. Download article from: Mountain Forum
Security sector reform in Nepal: Challenges and opportunities
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Nepal is in a critical transition from war to peace and is therefore facing several transitional challenges. One of them is transforming the security sector, which has operated within a highly centralized and unitary political system for more than two centuries. When the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) waged an armed insurrection in 1996, the state security system was reshaped to counter the insurgency. Hence, one of the biggest challenges is to transform the counterinsurgency and focus on ensuring that existing security policies, strategies and organizations fit into the changed political context. This chapter argues that the ongoing peace process will not be completed nor will democracy be stabilized without a thorough transformation of the security sector. In: Born H, Schnabel A, editors. Security Sector Reform in Challenging Environments. Geneva: LIT Verlag, pp 165-187. Available for Purchase from: Lit-Verlag
Livelihood strategies of internally displaced people in Western Nepal: Some observations
Ghimire Bhattarai, Anita
The livelihood strategies of internally displaced people are affected by the various factors and the new contexts that they encounter in the host communities. This topic has also been of great interest in the broader framework of migration studies. Taking the case of the Rajhena Camp in the Western Terai, Nepal, this Chapter examines the livelihood strategies of conflict-induced internally displaced persons using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (DFID 2002) and the Rural Livelihood System (Baumgartner 2006) as analytical tools. This Chapter attempts to understand how the circumstances endured by internally displaced persons affect their capacity to build assets or capitalise on available assets and, thus, shape their livelihood strategies. This chapter also discusses the relevance of livelihoods frameworks in studying the livelihood strategies of special categories of people. In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: South Asia Coordination Office, pp 217-256. Download
Livelihood Options of Internally Displaced Girls in Kathmandu and Nepalgunj: Analyzing Risks and Vulnerabilities
Piya, Sulava
The present qualitative study focuses on the livelihood strategies of young displaced girls in two urban centers of Nepal, Kathmandu and Nepalgunj. The study attempted to highlight the livelihood options and strategies of those girls who had been forcefully displaced to urban centers. The attempt was also made to analyze the livelihoods of the girls with the use of two renowned frameworks - DFID's Sustainable Livelihood Framework and Rural Livelihood Strategies. Abstract of Master Thesis at Kathmandu University. Download
Livelihoods Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In this book, the basic causes of livelihood insecurity and social tension and conflict in Nepal are documented and analysed and possible ways of addressing these challenges envisioned. We do not claim that this book gives a comprehensive framework for addressing all the challenge this country is facing, but we firmly believe that it will contribute to a deeper understanding of the livelihood complexity of poor people and elucidate potential ways to enhance their livelihood security and contribute to solving social conflict in Nepal. Download
Addressing livelihood insecurity and the need for further research
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
The livelihoods of people in conflict-ridden countries like Nepal are threatened by various conventional and non-conventional factors. The decade long conflict and the ongoing peace process have altered the livelihood options in Nepal, creating new options while constraining others. This Chapter highlights the need for a proper understanding of livelihoods in Nepal in the current transitional context to develop a response strategy to address livelihood insecurity and to capitalize on the opportunities brought about by the political changes in the country. It also suggests some areas for further research and analysis. In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: South Asia Coordination Office, pp 257-271. Download
Interlinkages between Internal and International Migration: A Case Study of Migrants from Bajhang in Dhangadhi, Far West Nepal
Poertner, Ephraim
In Nepal, poverty, unemployment, demographic developments and political turmoil during the Maoist insurgency have fuelled out-migration to foreign countries as well as internal migration in the recent past. Both internal and international migration phenomena are little researched components of the demographic dynamics in Nepal, despite their relevance for the country’s socio-economic and political development. The interlinkages between the two types of migration are even less understood, although it is assumed that they often influence one another. Evidence from research on migration in Nepal has revealed that internal migration can lead to international migration and vice versa. This study focuses therefore on such interlinkages between international and internal migration and aims at unveiling how internal migration and labour migration to India are interlinked in the case of a migrant community in the urban Terai. Abstract of Master Thesis at University of Zurich. Download
Sustainable tourism and post-conflict state building
Upadhaya, P.K.
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S, editors. The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu: South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 87-109. Download
The forgotten forces: Role of migrants in post-conflict Nepal
Ghimire Bhattarai, Anita
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S. (eds). The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu, South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 167-191. Download
Adressing land-based discrimination in post-conflict Nepal
Nepali, Purna Bahadur
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S. (eds). The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu, South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 151-166. Land is one of the key factors to determine power structure. Unequal distribution of land can result in various forms such as discrimination, dominance, exploitation and violence. In spite of the past development interventions, political changes and land reform programmes, the feudal and historical legacies in production relation have not changed much in Nepal. But to attain meaningful state building it is one of the necessary conditions to guarantee the access of land to the majority of the poor people. Download
Militarisation of the youth: Hindering state-building in post-conflict Nepal
Luitel, Anjana
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S. (eds). The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu, South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 193-209. In this chapter not the state-led but the non-state led militarisation of youth is discussed. In the context of Nepal, societal militarisation is fatal for the progress of achieving security, justice and enabling state because militarisation causes impunity, violates rule of law and implants societal fear and nervousness. The majority of the youth are seen to be in militant groups due to unemployment. The authors argue that if the state could have provided entrepreneurship skill development trainings to the youth, then half of the problems would have been already solved. Download
The post-conflict Trojan horse: Upsurge of urban crimes as a challenge to state building
Ghimire, Safal
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S. (eds). The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu, South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 211-239. The discussion in this chapter assesses, interprets and analyses the syndromes of urban crime as one of the post-conflict challenges for state building. It eyes upon the issues of crime from the angle of post-conflict security. The chapter gives attention to the increasing bureau-political tensions, and by the use of delineating the functions and malfunctions of police administration also to the loopholes to be corrected as well as the strengths to be accelerated. Download
Reconciliation and reintegration in post-conflict Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S. (eds). The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu, South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 259- 285. Promotion and strengthening of reconciliation and social and political reintegration is extremely essential for successful peace building in Nepal. This chapter mainly aims at focusing on the following objectives: 1. Identifying the issues related to reconciliation and social and political reintegration based on the reflection of communities and suggesting measures to promote community-focused reconciliation and social and political reintegration framework strategy. 2. Identifying community based capacity building measures for reconciliation and social and political reintegration. Download
Nepal Migration Year Book 2009
NCCR, North-South
Information on migration is very rare at present. People involved in research, planning as well as policy and advocacy demand it much. In view of consolidating information on migration, we first published Migration Year Book in 2006. It received very positive response. That encouraged us to publish similar Year Books in the following years continuously including additional information on students’ migration and other pertinent issues. This Migration Year Book 2009 is an outcome of it. This issue tries to include information on the undocumented labour migration leading to casualties and fraudulent cases. It also highlights the internal migration, migration between India and Nepal, and the Internally Displaced People within the country. We hope that this issue helps researchers, policy-makers, members of different political parties, students and general public.
Researchers' roles in knowledge co-production: Experience from sustainability research in Kenya, Switzerland, Bolivia and Nepal
Pohl, Christian
Co-production of knowledge between academic and non-academic communities is a prerequisite for research aiming at more sustainable development paths. Sustainability researchers face three challenges in such co-production: (a) addressing power relations; (b) interrelating different perspectives on the issues at stake; and (c) promoting a previously negotiated orientation towards sustainable development. A systematic comparison of four sustainability research projects in Kenya (vulnerability to drought), Switzerland (soil protection), Bolivia and Nepal (conservation vs. development) shows how the researchers intuitively adopted three different roles to face these challenges: the roles of reflective scientist, intermediary, and facilitator of a joint learning process. From this systematized and iterative self-reflection on the roles that a researcher can assume in the indeterminate social space where knowledge is co-produced, we draw conclusions regarding training. Science and Public Policy 37(4):267-281. DOI: 10.3152/030234210X496628
Nepal From War to Peace
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Nepal is formally ending the ten years of armed conflict (1996–2006) waged by the Communist Party of Nepal (hereinafter referred to as Maoist) and the government by signing the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in November 2006, but it is within a complicated transition period because of delay or inaction to implement the provisions stipulated in the CPA. Upreti BR. 2012. Nepal From War to Peace. Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 24(1):102-107. Available here
Private sector and post-conflict state building
Sharma, Sagar Raj
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S, editors. The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu: South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 47-63. This chapter initiates a debate on the role of private sector in conflict transformation and post-conflict state building. The key questions in this paper are: What went wrong with the development in Nepal in the last several decades? And what role can the business community play in resurrecting this fragile country? Download
Chapter 1: Introduction
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
This book looks at livelihood insecurity and social tension in Nepalese society. Conceptual links between livelihood insecurity, social tension and conflict in Nepal have seldom been made. Therefore, we examine this relationship from different perspectives. Nepalese experts, campaigners, academic and non-academic scholars engaged in the fields of public policy analysis, food rights and globalisation, livelihoods, conflict transformation and social change were invited to contribute their views and analysis. Their contributions provide the reader with a wide range of perspectives on livelihood insecurity and social conflict. Another aim of the book is to test the explanatory power of the livelihood approaches and to enrich the livelihood perspective by constructive and evidence-based criticism. In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: RCO South Asia, NCCR North-South, pp 1-7. Download
Nepal Migration Year Book 2010
Ghimire Bhattarai, Anita
The South Asia office of the NCCR North-South and the Nepal Institute of Development Studies have published The Nepal Migration Year Book 2010. The book provides data on various aspects of migration such as the different forms of migration, the number of migrants, and their remittances. Download book (PDF 3MB)
Factors Influencing the Gender Disparity in Primary School Participation
Schärer, Lilith
Master's Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland "This thesis examines the patterns of gender inequality in primary school participation and the different causes for the gender gap in primary school participation in the area of Lumbini, Rupandehi District, Nepal. Within the framework of the goals declared at the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000 of achieving universal primary education by 2015 and eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, this study focuses on girls as a social group, which in Nepal, as in many other developing countries, is disadvantaged in educational opportunities. [...]"
Nepal: Transition to Transformation
Pyakuryal , Kailash Nath
This book presents accounts of how Nepal is moving from a feudal, centralized, exclusionary monarchical state to an inclusive, federal republican nation. The book contains the role of the ten years of the armed conflict and the popular people's movement of April 2006 to bring enormous political and social changes in Nepal. The book also examines the role of foreign aid, situation of internally displaced people, relationship between land and conflict, and issues of pluralism, diversity and integration. Finally this book gives succinct ways forward for establishing political change and socio-economic transformation. Download
Nepali Women and Foreign Labour Migration
Adhikari , Jaganath
The process whereby Nepali women migrate to foreign countries for work and the consequences of their migration, in terms of its impact on Nepali economy and society, are both poorly understood even though women's migration abroad is not a recent phenomenon. Indeed, women have been migrating on a seasonal, temporary, and permanent basis for more than two centuries. The research on which this report is based was conducted with a view to enhancing our understanding of the different aspects of women's foreign labour migration. The 'problems' associated with women's migration have been much emphasised by the media, but it is impossible to understand the phenomenon and to develop effective and appropriate measures and mechanisms to support women migrants if we do not have a comprehensive and reliable picture of women's migration as a whole and of its implications for Nepalese economy and society. The research reported here will help build such a picture. NIDS, 211 pp., Kathmandu: UNIFEM
"We could show the men, that we are able to do it"
Locher, Martina
In: Premchander S, Müller C, editors. 2006. Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 267-284 Download
Selling Flowers in Religious Places as Livelihood Strategy
Yadav, Deepak
Master's Thesis at Kathmandu University Download
Land Reform and Exclusion of Poor People
Basnet, Jagat
This article attempts to find a way to grant poor people's rights to the land they cultivate. It takes a look at the question of land reform in Nepal and develops suggestions for future actions ensuring sustainable peace and livelihood security. In order to do this, the historical process of land controlling, the present situation as well as the role of different institutions and organizations in securing land rights are analyzed before suggestions for future actions are made. In: Pyakuryal KN, Upreti BR, Sharma SR, editors. Nepal: Transition to Transformation. Kathmandu: HNRSC, NCCR North-South, pp. 141-162. Download
Conflict Induced Displacement:
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In Nepal, the ten years of armed conflict between the state and the C P N (Maoists) has uprooted thousands of people from their homes and communities. They are facing tremendous difficulties. The objective of this article is to analyze the status, trend and dilemmas faced by the IDPs, and to initiate a debate on the urgency of addressing the IDP issues. In: Pyakuryal KN, Upreti BR, Sharma SR, editors. Nepal: Transition to Transformation. Kathmandu: HNRSC, NCCR North-South, pp. 101-139. Download
Resource governance and livelihood concerns: Park-people conflict in the Eastern Terai of Nepal.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Nepal is known as one of the world’s most conservation-friendly countries, with more than 18% of its total area as protected areas. However, because of the top-down, bureaucratically oriented, exclusionary governance systems practised in the protected areas, there is tension between park authorities and local people that ultimately causes livelihood insecurities. Most of the sufferers from the poor conservation governing systems in Nepal are poor, marginalised and indigenous people. As indigenous people are the victims of protected area management systems, an intense debate on the property rights and prior rights of indigenous people has emerged. To shed light on this debate, the author has employed the conceptual framework of legal pluralism, thereby providing better understanding of the conflict between the customary rights exercised by the indigenous communities and the formal legal arrangements of the state. In: Geiser U, Rist S, editors. Decentralisation Meets Local Complexity: Local Struggles, State Decentralisation and Acces to Natural Resources in South Asia and Latin America. Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp 217-248. Download
Acces to Land Resources: Livelihood Strategy of Ex-Kamaiyas of Kailali District
Neupane, Mahima
Kamayia is an agriculture-based bonded labour system, practiced in the Terai belt of Nepal. This study attempted to understand the livelihood status and strategies, the vulnerability and coping strategies of Ex-Kamayias with a main focus on their livelihood strategies in combination with land resources. Master's Thesis at Kathmandu University Download
Arbeiten beim grossen Nachbarn
Müller-Böker, Ulrike
Stellt die internationale Arbeitsmigration eine Chance für Nepal dar? Trägt sie zur Reduzierung von Armut bei? Können insbesondere arme Haushalte durch die Arbeitsmigration nach Indien ihren Lebensunterhalt sichern? Immer häufiger betonen internationale Entwicklungsorganisationen die wachsende Bedeutung und das grosse Potenzial der Migration. Gleichzeitig hat sich die Migrationsforschung facettenreich weiterentwickelt und befasst sich u.a. auch mit der Frage, wie Migrationshaushalte eine plurilokale Lebensunterhaltsstrategie meistern. Der Artikel zeigt Beispiele von Organisationsformen, mit denen Migrierende aus Far West Nepal die Möglichkeit schaffen, in der Megastadt Delhi ihre Existenz zu sichern. Nepal Information 99(2):70-73 Download
Environmental stress and demographic change in Nepal
Matthew, Richard
"In a report of the Environmental Change and Security Program, Richard Matthew and Bishnu Raj Upreti review the broad dynamics of Nepal’s current civil conflict and argue that environmental stress and population factors have played significant roles in creating the underlying conditions for acute insecurity and instability. Through a brief case study of the Koshi Tappu Wetland area, the authors show that this situation is evident not just in the Maoist strongholds of western Nepal, but even in remote areas of the east, thus encircling the capital region." Environmental Change and Security Program Report 2005, No. 11, pp. 29-39 Download PDF from: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
Mountain tourism in Nepal:
Upadhaya, P.K.
The widespread involvement of local people in mountain tourism is not only mandatory for the comprehensive development of mountain tourism, but also for the fulfillment of the livelihoods related inevitable needs of mountain people as key local stakeholders. The post-conflict Nepal after the end of a decade long (1996-2006) violent conflict is passing through the fragile period of transition. The local communities' participation is increasingly important to prevent their discontent and frustration, and, if not fulfilled, can further induce the possibility of the recurrence of any kind of unwarranted conflict in Nepal. A sincere review on existing mountain tourism related policies and regulation and molding these measures to facilitate local people's participation will be justifiable for the sustainable development of mountain tourism in Nepal. Order from Mountain Forum
Proliferation of small arms and challenges to post-conflict state building
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S. (eds). The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu, South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 241-257. Download
The long and winding road of state building
Sharma, Sagar Raj
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S. (eds). The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu, South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 305-310. In this chapter the author tries to wrap up the discussions of of the book by synthesising the concepts discussed and highlighting the complexities of post-conflict state building. Download
Nature conservation and sustainable development
Soliva, Reto
In: Domroes M. editor. 2003. Translating Development: The Case of Nepal. New Delhi, Social Science Press. Order from: Vedams Books
Reconciling biodiversity conservation priorities with livelihood needs in Kangchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal
Gurung, Ghana
Human Geography Series 2006, Vol. 23. Department of Human Geography, Institute of Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich. 192 pp. ISBN 3-906302-06-7 Order from: Department of Geography, University of Zurich
Socio-Economic Study and Livelihood Conditions of Dalits of Geta VDC in Kailali District
Singh, Shristee
Dalits are considered as one of the most disadvantaged groups because the process of social stratification and job distribution in the past has resulted in their present socio-economic plight and their entire and perpetual backwardness. Hence, most of the Dalits even today remain poorest of the poor. Even though many of the Dalits carry on with their caste based and service oriented traditional occupation as well as agricultural work, the significant return to the service they render and landlessness have made them face appalling poverty. Therefore, the main object of this study was to examine the socio-economic and livelihood conditions of Dalits, their household level food security with respect to land holding size and their living standard. Master's Thesis at Kathmandu University Download
A decade of armed conflict and livelihood insecurity in Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
This chapter looks at the different sources of the decade-long armed conflict in Nepal and their interrelationship with livelihood insecurity. The complexity and interwovenness of the different causes is highlighted and their collective impact on the livelihoods of the poor and marginalised people examined. In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: South Asia Coordination Office, pp 9-47. Download
Social Networks and Migration
Thieme, Susan
Münster, LIT-Verlag
Reconciling conservation and livelihood needs in protected areas of Nepal
Gurung, Ghana
In: Jeff McNeely, Tom McCarthy, Andrew Smith, Linda Whittaker and Eric Wikramnayake, editors. 2006. Conservation Biology in Asia. Kathmandu: Society for Conservation Biology Asia Section and Resources Himalaya Foundation, pp. 45-61 Order from: Resources Himalaya Foundation
Geographic Analysis of Livelihood Strategy in Jagritinagar Squatter Settlement, Kathmandu
Adhikari, Rajip
The general objective of this study is to analyse the urban poverty issue from the livelihood and vulnerability perspective in Jagritinagar squatter settlement of Kathmandu Metropolitan City. The specific objectives are: * to examine the socio-economic condition of the people of Jagritinagar squatter settlement * to explore the types of livelihood means * to assess the strategies adopted by the squatters * to analyse the vulnerability context of the people in Jagritinagar squatter settlement Abstract of Master Thesis at Tribhuvan University. Download
Climate Change and Floods: Vulnerability Analysis of People towards Disaster
Maharjan, Kiran
Although flood disasters devastate livelihoods annually, especially in the monsoon, diminution in havocs in the low lying areas of developing countries like Nepal does not seem to take place. As impacts of climate change are being felt in many parts of the world recently, the current study tries to analyze the biophysical as well as socio-economic vulnerability of people towards climate change and floods, clarifying the relationship between these two phenomena. Abstract of Master Thesis at Kathmandu University. Download
Food Insecurity, conflict and livelihood threats in Nepal
Adhikari , Jaganath
This chapter examines the food security situation in Nepal and the impact of the recent armed conflict on the food security situation. It argues that food security is understood in different ways and that definitions have changed over time, as these definitions are influenced by different factors – both subjective and objective, and domestic and international. Based on the analysis, some recommendations are made as to how to improve the food security situation in times of conflict, during normal times and in the context of globalisation. In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: South Asia Coordination Office, pp 73-130. Download
Nepal's pathway for peaceful transformation and challenges ahead
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Readings on Governance and Development 8: 18-25. Download
Restructuring Nepal Army: A Conflict Transformation Perspective
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Nepal is at a crossroads of fundamental socio-political transformation. Facilitating and sustaining such transformation requires new vision, new constitutional framework, new institutional arrangement, new instruments and new commitment. Conduct, action and behaviour of the political parties, judiciary, security (military, armed police, civilian police, intelligence and other security related institutions) and bureaucracy are some of the fundamental institutions that determine success or failure of materializing fundamental sociopolitical transformation. Hence, substantial reorientation of these institutions is a precondition to make them relevant to the changing political context. This paper discusses the restructuring of military, one of the fundamentally important security components of security sector, from the conflict transformation2 and peace building perspective. The objective of this paper is to initiate a constructive debate on the need and approach of restructuring of Nepal Army in the changing political context. The paper brings argument that the relevance of transformation of Nepal Army is essential at the present context. Nepali Journal of Contemporary Studies VII(1): 69-94
The Remake of a State: Post Conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
State building is a highly debated topic these days, whether referring to war-torn Iraq, conflict-ridden Afghanistan, or any number of other countries facing or recovering from acute instability. Questions of physical reconstruction and socio-economic transformation are especially crucial. The issue of state building has recently gained in importance in South Asia, particularly in the aftermath of conflicts in Sri Lanka and Nepal. The Remake of a State presents expert analysis, conceptual frameworks, and case studies relevant to sustainable state building in Nepal. Download book (3 MB)
Street Sweeping as a Livelihood Strategy of Pode Community in KMC
Adhikari, Basant
Master's Thesis at Kathmandu University Download
Livelihood Options of Dalits, an Analysis with Reference to Land Resources
Adhikari, Samana
Dalits are considered as synonymous to landlessness. They do not have enough land to support their family. They have to depend on landlords for their subsistence. Many studies are conducted on the issue of Dalit, their empowerment, caste untouchability, their access and control over resources. However, no reports have been found addressing their livelihood options or about the decent jobs they can perform. This study has attempted to examine the various options available and adopted by the Dalits and their level of standard within their own community. Master's Thesis at Kathmandu University Download
Livelihood strategy of the street food vendor in Kathmandu city: A case study of Jawalakhel, Gongabu and New Road Area
Pandey, Soney
In Kathmandu City, there are many Street Food Vendors selling pre-cooked, packed food and food to be cooked on the spot. Most of the Street Food Vendors are migrants from rural areas of the country and usually poorly educated or illitarate. This study attempts to examine the socio-economic conditions of Street Food Vendors, their livelihood strategies, the vulnerability of their context and the consumers' perception of the street food. Master's Thesis at Kathmandu University Download
Student Workshop Proceedings on Peace-Building in Nepal
Ghimire, Safal
The document contains the results of discussions held during a visit to Nepal by Harvard University students, co-hosted by the NCCR North-South and Kathmandu University. Download pdf
Social networks and migration: Women's livelihoods between Far West Nepal and Delhi
Thieme, Susan
Although migration from Nepal has increasingly been the subject of research since the 1990s, there are very few publications about gender and migration in Nepal. We want to contribute to fill this research gap by presenting a case study of women’s livelihoods in the context of labour migration, both as migrants themselves and as women who remain in the villages. The migrants originate from Bajura district of the Far Western Development Region, where migration to India has been a common occurrence for several generations and the economy can be described as “agri-migratory” (Bruslé 2008: 241). The analysis sheds light on women’s individual aspirations as well as their position within their families and communities. It also explores how kinship networks and social capital shape women’s lives and whether migration facilitates social change. In: European Bulletin of Himalayan Research 35-36: 107-121. Download
Livelihood strategies in a marginal area of Nepal (Far West Nepal) with an emphasis on labour migration to India.
Müller-Böker, Ulrike
Labour migration to India is a very important livelihood strategy for people living in marginal areas of Nepal. How is this strategy embedded in the local context? Which institutions shape the migrants' everyday life in India? What are the opportunities to improve the crucial institutions for money transfer and money saving? These questions are on the research agenda of an ongoing project at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. In: Jones G, Leimgruber W, Nel E, editors. Issues in Geographical Marginality: Papers presented during the Meetings of the Commission on Evolving Issues of Geographical Marginality in the Early 21st Century World, 2001-2004. Grahamstown: Rhodes University. Download
Reconstruction and development in post-conflict Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S. (eds). The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu, South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 129-149. The main objective of this chapter is to initiate a debate on the various dimensions of post-conflict development and reconstruction as integral components of state building and strengthening democracy and achieving durable and just peace. This chapter attempts to answer the questions: what are the key issues and elements of post-conflict development? How can development contribute to state-building? Download
Resistance Movements in Conflict Transformation and Social Change.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
The April movement of 2006 has fundamentally questioned the feudalistic, centralized and exclusionary political system presided over by the monarchy in Nepal. It has also paved the way for a broader socio-political transformation and the ushering of a federal republic structure of the state. Based on the experiences of the 19-day-long people's peaceful resistance movement, it is argued that the conventional concept of civil society needs to be redefined based on the potential of civil movement in changing the political system and shaping the future of the nation-state. The author concludes that non-violent resistance movement has a great prospect of settling conflict and building peace. In: Pyakuryal KN, Upreti BR, Sharma SR, editors. Nepal: Transition to Transformation. Kathmandu: HNRSC, NCCR North-South, pp. 15-48. Download
Climate Change and its Impacts on Agriculture: Farmers' Perception and Adaptation Measures: A Case Study of Jagatpur VDC of Chitwan District
Maharjan, Roshna
Climate change is a global problem with local impacts. The poor are hit hardest and are most vulnerable to its impact, as they cannot afford mitigation measures. Poor and marginalized people live on marginalized land, which makes them more vulnerable to disasters brought about by climate change such as floods and landslides. The changes in rainfall patterns and temperature have made agricultural production risky. A large part of Nepal’s population depends on agriculture and therefore even a small change in climatic conditions affects the lives of people to a high extent. Master Thesis at Kathmandu University. Download