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State actors' livelihoods, acts of translation, and forest sector reforms in northwest Pakistan
Geiser, Urs
"Forests in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan are under heavy pressure. Often, local people are blamed in this regard for their exploitative resource use. The present paper, however, searches for an understanding of the ongoing processes by analysing the livelihood strategies and daily practices of representatives of the local state and donor project experts. Insights show that policy formulation at the provincial capital is not implemented in a functionalist manner at lower levels of the administration. Instead, many processes and acts of translation within the wider context of livelihood strategies take place along the actual practice (rather than the discourse) of policy formulation and implementation through the various scales from the head offices of donors in the North to the provincial capital in the South, to the regional centres and, finally, to the forests in the Hindukush-Himalayan mountains." Contemporary South Asia 2004, Vol. 13, Issue 4, pp. 437 - 448 Available from: informaworld
Forest Governance in Transition
Rome, Sultan-i-
The historic Swat valley in the North-West Frontier-Province (NWFP) of Pakistan and its adjoining area were covered in forest since the earliest times. The nineteenth century proved a turning point in respect to the exploitation of these forests when some outsiders, mostly Kaka Khel Mians, started to exploit the forest in the area and extracted timber for export. Research into the present-day forest issues in NWFP has always recognised the importance of the historical past. However, very little was known about the details of forestry in the areas that comprised the princely state of Swat, and Kalam - both before and during the period of the Princely State of Swat. The objective of the present study is to cover in detail the Walis period from 1947 till 1969 and also the post-State period; and to show how forests have been managed and used in the Swat State areas and Kalam during the period 1947-2005. WP2/IP6 Working Paper No. 9. Zurich: Department of Geography, University of Zurich
Women's right to land ownership in Swat State Areas
Sultan-i-, Rome
Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 2008(1): 105-121.
Analysis of Forest Related Development Interventions in Highland District of NWFP, Pakistan
Tayyab, Muhamad
Global community has been discussing international forest policy issues within the United Nations system since the end of the Second World War. Since then, the forest sector has undergone many changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), for example, recognize that forests are critical to achieving overall sustainable development, reducing poverty, securing livelihoods, improving the environment, halting the loss of biodiversity and reversing land and resource degradation. Pakistan is also following the global agenda and several forest related development projects/interventions were carried out from time to time in forest rich mountainous areas. But very few studies are reported on the analysis of such projects on scientific basis. The present research project is therefore designed to critically analyze the forest related interventions in NWFP. Download
Trees, trust and the state: A comparison of participatory forest management in Pakistan and Tanzania
Shahbaz, Babar
This paper attempts to analyse the trust, power relations and emerging conflicts as state and non-state actors try to adjust to their new roles in the perspective of participatory forest management initiatives in Pakistan and Tanzania. Based on historical and empirical context, we argue that the institutional base responsible for enhancing trust between state and local actors is rather weak in both countries. The major obstacles are that the state actors are not willing to fully devolve power; and the responsibility - as delegated by the state - of newly created institutions demands forest protection rather than defining management rights.
Migration trends from Pakistan
Jan, Maqsood Ahmed
There are several forms of international migration from Pakistan towards many regions: North America, European Union states, Persian Gulf and East Asia. These forms of trans-border movement vary extensively over time and place of destination. Pakistan was also among the other countries that supplied work force to European progression towards industrialization in the 1950s. That trend changed in the 1970s when geo-political changes and economic configurations resulted in sharp decline in expatriate labor to Europe. Later that trend transformed into re-unification of immediate family members of settled migrant workers and immigration to North America. Migration to East Asia and specifically to Persian Gulf States is of more significance both in terms of numbers and the new pattern of return migration due to short contractual arrangements. Available from: SPDI
The political economy of forest management in Pakistan.
Shahbaz, Babar
Deforestation in Pakistan is one of the highest in the world, despite rigorous institutional changes in forest management paradigms. This paper attempts to provide an explanatory analysis of forest governance and deforestation and its consequences in Pakistan, to examine the interaction between forests and local livelihoods, and to identify the factors responsible for deforestation and the ineffectiveness of state forest management strategies. The paper argues that some of the main barriers to effective and sustainable forest management are a lack of understanding of local livelihood strategies, lack of political will in the part of state actors, lack of sense of ownership of forests by the local communities, and the presence of powerful timber smugglers. In: : Cornin R, Pandya A, editors. Exploiting Natural Resources: Growth, Instability, and Conflict in the Middle East and Asia. Washington DC: The Henry L. Stimson Centre, pp 21-32 Available from: Stimson
Social Network Analysis of Stakeholders in the Context of Forest Related Development Interventions in NWFP
Kiran, Sadia
Pakistan is endowed with natural resources and forests are one of precious assets, but are exploited badly due to many socio-economic factors like poverty, political pressure, and lack of awareness leading towards poor decision making of majority of stakeholders. Despite the fact that numerous forest related projects and interventions in NWFP have been launched and implemented, the rate of forest depletion is still very high as indicated by previous researches. An exploratory analysis of social networks of stakeholders was undertaken because it has more significant implications for the success of a development projects/interventions or policy framework. The main objective of this research project was to identify and analyze social networks of stakeholders, their characteristics, roles, relationships with each other, perceptions and angles of perceptions etc. in the context of selected forest related development interventions (projects). Masters Thesis at Rawalpindi Arid-Agricultural University. Download
Floods in Pakistan: Socio-political and 'techno-nature' challenges - a first glance
Geiser, Urs
The floods are among the worst disasters that hit Pakistan and its people. And they pose a whole series of incredible challenges to the country's citizens, administration, political parties, civil society, and academia. In the following sections, we mention just a few of them, being aware that there are many more to be tackled. We start with issues of emergency aid delivery and coordination, moving to challenges of raising funds amidst Pakistan's "bad image", then gradually moving towards questions regarding the causes for the disaster, and capabilities to cope with them. Download
Pakistan's national emigration policy. A review
Jan, M. A.
Policy Paper Series # 35, Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) Download
Pakistan Forest Digest, Vol 1, No.3 (Oct-Dec 2010)
Suleri, Abid Qaiyum
The Pakistan Forest Digest (PFD) is a quarterly series of digests focused on the forest related issues, government and non-government endeavors, community concerns and rights reported by the leading Pakistani newspapers and periodicals. Download
Negotiating gender relations: Muslim women and formal employment in Pakistan’s rural development sector
Grünenfelder, Julia
Drawing on evidence from qualitative field research, this article explores how Pakistani female development practitioners experience their work situations as they are shaped both by local sociocultural norms and globalized development agendas. Grünenfelder J. 2012. Negotiating gender relations: Muslim women and formal employment in Pakistan’s rural development sector. Gender, Work and Organization. Available at Onlinelibrary.wiley
Gender, Work and Development in Northwest Pakistan. Working Environments of Pakistani Female Development Practitioners
Grünenfelder, Julia
Even though women in Pakistan have attracted some interest among researchers and policymakers, they are often represented as oppressed and victimised members of a highly patriarchal society. What is lacking are nuanced approaches that recognise Pakistani women as active and diverse agents without neglecting the societal structures that limit their agency. This research thus aims to provide more detailed representations of Pakistani women. Available here
Securing Livelihoods in the Realm of Climate Change and Food Insecurity: A Case Study of Kaghan Valley
Safdar, Umair
This research study was conducted within the frame work of the Research Project RP2 (Livelihood Futures) funded by the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South). Kaghan Valley in Mansehra district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan is the case study area. The mountainous areas of KPK are characterized with the patches of agricultural fields and terrace farming; while subsistence livelihoods depend on agriculture and livestock in this region. These mountainous regions are extremely vulnerable to climate change and climatic extremes. It has been reported by different researches that farmers adopt various strategies to cope with the negative effect of climate change. This study was designed to analyze how small farmers cope with climate change and climate extremes and secure their livelihoods to achieve food security. Safdar U. 2012. Securing Livelihoods in the Realm of Climate Change and Food Insecurity: A Case Study of Kaghan Valley [Master Thesis]. Faisalabad, Pakistan: University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Download
Pakistan Forest Digest, Vol 2, No.1 (Apr-Jun 2011)
Suleri, Abid Qaiyum
The Pakistan Forest Digest (PFD) is a quarterly series of digests focused on the forest related issues, government and non-government endeavors, community concerns and rights reported by the leading Pakistani newspapers and periodicals. Download
Improving Small Ruminant Production
Maselli, Daniel
"Livestock production is a key livelihood strategy and a way of life for most smallholders in the Hindukush. Depending on ethnicity, access to land, labor force, and ecological conditions, small to large herds of goats, sheep, cattle and buffalo serve as a primary or secondary source of livelihood. Ongoing deterioration of environmental conditions — frequently due to overgrazing — and the depletion of timber and firewood resources — often linked to demographic and economic pressure both in the highlands and the lowlands—increasingly worsen living conditions. Alternative livelihood strategies and pathways to more sustainable natural resource use are needed. [...]" Mountain Research and Development 2005, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp. 104-108 Order via your university library from: BioOne
State of Forests in Pakistan through a Pressure-State-Response Framework
Suleri, Abid Qaiyum
In: SDPI [Sustainable Development Policy Institute]. editor. 2003. "State of Forests in Pakistan through a Pressure-State-Response Framework", Sustainable Development and Southern Realities - Past and Future in South Asia. Sustainable Development Policy Institute, City Press, Islamabad, Pakistan, S.47-72. Order from: Pakistan Research Group
Dilemmas in Participatory Forest Management in Northwest Pakistan: A Livelihoods Perspective.
Shahbaz, Babar
This book attempts to unterline the livelihoods perspective of participatory or joint forest management initiatives in NWFP. The main aim is to understand the linkages between rural livelihoods, the role forests play in the livelihoods and the impact of (changing) forest governance on these livelihoods. The analysis revealed that in the NWFP model of joint forest management, the provincial Forest Department maintains the priorities of forest conservation, while local people's top priorities are to secure the financial means they require for living and related basic needs. The book shows that this divergence of expectations was not taken into consideration during the reform process. Mistrust and lack of effective communication between main stakeholders are identified as another factor hindering the effectiveness of the participatory approach. Likewise the interventions had not taken care to include the poor and marginalised sections of the community. To order this publication, please contact Regina Kohler at the Division of Human Geography, Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
Donor-driven participatory forest management and 'Local Social Realities': Insights from Pakistan.
Shahbaz, Babar
This paper analyses a participatory forest management initiative in the milieu of local social realities (such as customary forest use, power relations and livelihood concerns) and the actors who are part of these realities. The paper shows that the donor-driven decentralisation of forest management did not consider traditional practices of forest use, nor did it attempt to engage customary institutions and local civil society in the process. Though new institutions (joint forest management and Village Development Committees) have been established for implementation of participatory forest management and land use plans at the village level, the paper shows that responsibility delegated by the state to these institutions concerns protection of the forests rather than management. A mismatch between local livelihood concerns and the institutional change process is also revealed. In: Geiser U, Rist S, editors. Decentralisation Meets Local Complexity: Local Struggles, State Decentralisation and Access to Natural Resources in South Asia and Latin America. Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp 249-273. Download
Livelihood Assets Atlas: Mountainous Districts of NWFP (Pakistan)
Suleri, Abid Qaiyum
For poverty reduction interventions to be effective, it is important to understand the multiple livelihood assets, livelihood activities and multiple sources of vulnerability faced by the poor. In addition to recognizing these activities, using livelihood approaches requires an attempt to understand the processes that underlie poverty, and the social, cultural, political, and institutional contexts in which poor people live. Although the individual, household, and community are the primary levels of analysis, livelihood approaches seek out the relevant interactions at micro, meso, and macro levels. In this backdrop, the main objective of this “Livelihood Assets Atlas” is to provide a comparative depiction of the indicators of livelihood assets which are assumed as poverty reducing factors. Download
Critical analysis of rural development initiatives in Pakistan: implications for sustainable development
Luqman, Muhammad
In the global world poverty persists and dominates in rural areas. To develop rural people on sustained basis like other developing countries, in Pakistan many rural development programs were initiated during the last six decades but was terminated due to one or many reasons. The major concerns relating to the failure or termination of these programs were economic (well-being), social and environmental sustainability. In all the rural development programs focus was given increase in the production of agricultural farms and no emphasis was given to the non-farm income activities as well as environmental issues. Due to which poverty dominate and persists in rural areas, especially women and marginalized groups become more vulnerable. In this situation state should give special emphasis to environmental issues and rural non-farm income resources for sustainable development in the country. Luqman M, Shahbaz B, Ali T, Iftikhar M. 2013. Critical analysis of rural development initiatives in Pakistan: implications for sustainable development. Spanish Journal of Rural Development IV(1):67-74.
Stakeholders' role and interactions in context of forestry extension interventions in the Northwest Pakistan
Wattoo, Muhammad Arif
This paper reports the findings of a research project conducted in the forest districts viz. Mansehra, Abotabad and Haripur in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. The main objective of the study was to identify the interaction among main stakeholders at the local level – and analyze their extent of participation in decision-making in the context of three forest related extension projects. Poor interaction between the forest department and local communities was perceived due to supremacy of the forest department in decision-making regarding forest management at local level. It was recommended that implementing should involve local communities simultaneously in decision-making and implementation process, local communities should work with implementing agencies to accelerate project activities and donor agencies should develop consensus among involved stakeholders before the implementation of a project. Pakistan Journal of Agicultural Sciences 42(2): 173-177 Download from: http://pakjas.com.pk
Improving Sustainable Grazing Management in Mountain Rangelands of the Hindu Kush–Himalaya
Ur-Rahim, Inam
"[...] The combined and participatory approach suggested in this paper describes how a more tangible, quantifiable relationship can be established between individual plant and community level processes. Such an approach, which involves herders in expert assessment and data collection, enables better monitoring and forecasting of those changes in plant community composition that are relevant for livestock husbandry and sustainable resource use. In this study, the highest dry matter production (DMP) was recorded at altitudes between 1200 m (with 1945 kg/ha) and 1600 m (with 1921 kg/ha). In “freely grazed rangeland”—where access is not limited and no manual improvement measures are taken—the proportion of palatable forage species is much lower than in “fenced rangeland,” where access is limited and the stocking rate reduced to one third. Such integrated assessment of rangeland conditions ultimately provides the baseline for evaluating changes in ecosystems over time; it also provides a sound basis for negotiation among stakeholders with different interests." Mountain Research and Development 2004, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 124–133 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Analysis of myths and realities of deforestation in Pakistan:
Ali, Tanvir
This paper attempts to analyze myths and realities regarding deforestation in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. It presents the perceptions of forest dependent people of the province regarding the forest use patterns, condition of forests, change in forest cover, factors responsible for the forest depletion and increase of illegal cutting. The intensive use of forest wood for household needs and ineffective forest management strategies by the forest department were some of the key reasons of deforestation in the study area. Policy guidelines are suggested for improving the effectiveness of forestry extension sevices. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 8(1):107-110. Download
Vertrauen versetzt Bäume
Geiser, Urs
Die Wälder im Nordwesten Pakistans sind bedroht. Sie überleben nur, wenn die Bevölkerung und die lokalen Behörden bei der Bewirtschaftung und beim Schutz konstruktiv zusammenarbeiten. Ein Forschungsprojekt zeigt, wie sich das schwierige Verhältnis zwischen ihnen verbessern lässt. In: KFPE: Gemeinsam zum Erfolg - Was Forschungspartnerschaften mit Entwicklungsländern bewirken. Bern: Akademie der Naturwissenschaften Schweiz (SCNAT). Download
Analysis of institutional changes in forest management and their impact on rural livelihood strategies in NWFP, Pakistan
Shahbaz, Babar
PhD Thesis, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan Most of the natural forests of Pakistan are located in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). High rate of deforestation has brought into focus the shortfalls of traditional state controlled top-down systems of forest management. The participatory approach of forest management was started through Asian Development Bank’s funded Forestry Sector Project (FSP). The province's Forest Department was reformed, and village level committee were formed to join the forest department officials in preparing and implementing local resource use plans. The FSP developed and implemented these processes in a number of villages, expecting the reformed forest department to spread the concept throughout NWFP. This thesis analysed the impact of participatory forest management on livelihood assets, vulnerability and livelihood strategies based on a comparison of project villages with non-project villages; and thereby identifying the issues supporting or hindering the effectiveness of forest reforms and decentralisation process. Download
People need education to conserve forests
Mohammed , E.
In: The Post 07.07.2010 This newspaper article deals with the workshop of PAMS "Research based policy advocacy & dialogues for sustainable forest governance" organised by Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) in collaboration with the NCCR North-South, held in Islamabad on 6th July 2010. Download
Pakistan Forest Digest, Vol 1, No.1 (Apr-Jun 2010)
Suleri, Abid Qaiyum
The Pakistan Forest Digest (PFD) is a quarterly series of digests focused on the forest related issues, government and non-government endeavors, community concerns and rights reported by the leading Pakistani newspapers and periodicals. Download
Impact of participatory forest management on financial assets of rural communities in Northwest Pakistan
Ali, Tanvir
"The system of participatory (or joint) forest management was commenced in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan in 1996 through Asian Development Bank's funded project. These forest reforms seek to initiate the process of eliminating the main causes of forest depletion through participation of local communities. Nevertheless, despite decades of the donor's interventions the deforestation rate in NWFP is still alarming. In this paper we have attempted to analyze the participatory forest management in Northwest Pakistan through livelihood lenses. More specifically this paper explores the impact of joint forest management initiatives on financial assets and livelihood strategies of local people. The overall results indicated that majority of the respondents were not dependent on the natural resources for their cash income rather they had adopted diverse non-natural resource based activities such as migration, labour etc. The results also indicated that the main priorities of the local people were financial and food security; where as the NWFP model of joint forest management gives more emphasis on forest protection and regeneration. Although the joint forest management enhanced the social assets of the local communities yet the omission of immediate financial benefits from the institutional changes in the forestry sector of NWFP was a barrier in motivating the local people in forest protection and was one of the main issues hindering the effectiveness of the forest reforms process." Ecological Economics 2007, Volume 63, Issues 2-3, pp. 588-593 Available from: ScienceDirect
Entwicklungsinterventionen und die Macht lokaler Alltagspraxis
Geiser, Urs
"Von Geographischer Entwicklungsforschung wird häufig Praxisrelevanz gefordert, die sich etwa in Begleitforschungen zur Entwicklungszusammenarbeit (EZA) äussert. Solch anwendungsorientierte Forschung ist wichtig, thematisiert aber nie das Instrument der Entwicklungsintervention und deren Grundannahmen selber. Der Artikel argumentiert deshalb für eine Forschung zur Entwicklung als soziale Praxis, mit deren Hilfe die Wirkungsweise der EZA als eine soziale Arena der Politikformulierung und -umsetzung begriffen wird. Diese analytische Perspektive wird am Beispiel der stark genutzten Wälder Nordwest-Pakistans eingesetzt. Trotz intensiver Entwicklungsanstrengungen in den letzten zwanzig Jahren geht es den Wäldern heute so schlecht wie zuvor. Durch eine Perspektive von Entwicklung als soziale Praxis wird deutlich, dass zwischen der Formulierung von Entwicklungspolitiken und ihrer praktischen Umsetzung grosse Unterschiede bestehen, welche häufig im Spannungsfeld zwischen «Projektwelten» und der realen Alltagspraxis der Beteiligten begründet liegt." Geographica Helvetica 2006, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 4-13 Available from:Geographica Helvetica
In Pakistans Wäldern gelten viele Gesetze
Steimann, Bernd
In German Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Mittwoch 29. Juni 2005, Nr.149, p.9. Download
"Donor-driven" forest governance in northwest Pakistan - challenges and future outlook
Geiser, Urs
In sum, the present situation of forestry in NWFP is one of tension, mistrust, and the existence of unrelated forest governance regimes (customary procedures; state/donors approach). We argue (1) that more independent agents are required to mediate between state and local forest users, and (2) that local people need to be provided with the information that they are entitled to demand proper and inclusive Joint Forest Management Committees. For donors, this represents a delicate situation of choice and "positioning", i.e. defining with whom to cooperate and who to support. In: Carter J, Schmidt K, Robinson P, Stadtmüller T, Nizami A, editors. Forests, landscapes and governance: multiple actors, multiple roles. Download
Identification and Analysis of Stakeholders in the Context of Forest Related Development Projects in Highland Districts of NWFP
Wattoo, Muhammad Arif
Despite various forest related development and extension projects had been implemented, the rate of forest depletion is still very high in Pakistan. Failure of most of the forest related projects and policies in meeting their intended objectives calls for investigating the underlying causes of the ineffectiveness of these projects. The study objectives included; i. To identify and characterize major stakeholders at multiple levels in the context of forest related development projects. ii. To assess the perceptions of stakeholders regarding poverty environment nexus. iii. To identify the interactions (affiliations) among different organizations and actors in terms of activities (projects) and institutions. iv. To assess sphere of influence of involved stakeholders and the objectives pursued by them with regard to poverty and to environmental functions and services. v. To suggest policy implications for improving the effectiveness of forestry extension. Abstract of Master Thesis at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Download
Pakistan Forest Digest, Vol.1, No.2 (Jul-Sept 2010)
Suleri, Abid Qaiyum
The Pakistan Forest Digest (PFD) is a quarterly series of digests focused on the forest related issues, government and non-government endeavors, community concerns and rights reported by the leading Pakistani newspapers and periodicals. Download
Civil society need not speak English
Geiser, Urs
"In Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province, international donors found it difficult to find non-governmental organisations relevant to their purposes. Because donors were uncomfortable with the local conditions and regional traditions, they simply overlooked possible contacts." Magazine for Development & Cooperation 2006, Vol. 33, Issue 8-9, pp. 326-328 Available online from: Magazine for Development & Cooperation
The Urgency of (Not Necessarily) Policy-Oriented Research
Geiser, Urs
In: SDPI [Sustainable Development Policy Institute Islamabad], editor. 2005. Sustainable Development. Bridging the Research / Policy Gaps in Southern Contexts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Vol.I: Environment, pp. 67-76 Order book from: Oxford University Press
A Critical Analysis of Forest Policies of Pakistan
Shahbaz, Babar
Pakistan has very low forest cover, but these forests are very diverse in nature and of significant importance for the livelihood security of millions of rural people who live in and around these forests. Policies, institutions and processes form the context within which individuals and households construct and adapt livelihood strategies, on the other hand these institutionally shaped livelihood strategies may have an impact on the sustainability of natural resource use. The present paper aims to critically analyse the forest policies of Pakistan. Implications for sustainable forest management and livelihood security of forest dependent people are also given. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 2007, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 441-453 Available for purchase from: SpringerLink.com
'A female ... will not be available here': Gendered labour markets in Northwest Pakistan's rural development sector
Grünenfelder, Julia
While Pakistan has legally binding mechanisms to promote gender equality in employment, labour markets are shaped by the highly gender-segregated society they are embedded in. Based on the conceptualisation of labour markets as gendered institutions, I explore how gender generates unequal access to the labour market for social organisers—a term referring to a type of development practitioner—in the Hazara region, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, making it difficult for women to participate in an occupational field where they are urgently needed to work with village women. go to publisher's website
Trust restores trees
Geiser, Urs
The forests in northwestern Pakistan are being threatened. They will survive only of the population and the local authorities can manage to work together constructively to solve problems. A research project shows how the difficult relationship between them can be improved. In: KFPE: Cooperating for Success – Benefits of Research Partnerships with Developing Countries. Bern: Akademie der Naturwissenschaften Schweiz (SCNAT). Download
Food Security - Where we are (current status) and where we want to go (way forward)
Suleri, Abid Qaiyum
This publication first draws a global picture of food security and examines why food prices have soared. Later, it analyses the Pakistan situation accounting for all of the following aspects of food security: Food availability, access to food, food absorption and sustainability of availability and access. Ultimately, it looks at ways to improve the availability of food at affordable prices. Download