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A la recherche des déterminants institutionnels du bien-être des populations sédentaires et nomades dans la plaine du Waza-Logone de la frontière camerounaise et tchadienne
Fokou, Gilbert
"Cette contribution présente les articulations d’une étude actuellement en cours dans la région du Logone et Chari au Cameroun et dont le but est d’oeuvrer pour l’élaboration des savoirs et des connaissances pour le développement pastoral. De nombreux groupes de populations sédentaires et nomades vivent dans cette localité et dépendent des plaines inondées du Sud du lac Tchad pour leur subsistance. Or, les ressources naturelles connaissent de grandes variations saisonnières et deviennent parfois la propriété des groupes sédentaires. De ce fait, les éleveurs nomades éprouvent de nombreuses difficultés pour accéder non seulement aux pâturages et à l’eau, mais aussi aux services de santé de qualité (centres hospitaliers, médicaments efficaces). L’ambition ici est de définir de nouvelles conditions institutionnelles d’accès aux soins de santé pour les populations sédentaires et nomades. En fait, la plupart des problèmes auxquels sont confrontés les nomades de nos jours seraient dus à l’inadaptation des règles formelles en vigueur aux stratégies de survie des populations rurales. Celles mises en place à l’époque pré-coloniale ne sont plus opérationnelles. L’on pourrait conclure, sous forme d’hypothèse à vérifier, que la définition de nouveaux cadres institutionnels de gestion des ressources naturelles pourrait contribuer à l’amélioration des conditions de santé des pasteurs nomades." Médecine Tropicale 2004, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 1-5 Download
Agrarian Distress and Rural Livelihoods
Nair, K.N.
"This study examines the impact of agrarian distress on the different socio-economic groups, the strategies of livelihood adopted by households and the local institution in shaping these strategies. The study is based on the data collected from in-depth socio-economic enquiries conducted in Upputhara Panchayat in Idukki District. An important conclusion of the study is that the strategies of livelihood framed in response to a shock could vary across households depending on the extent of their asset ownership." CDS Working Paper no. 392. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies. >>Download
Challenges for Sustainable Rural Development in Ethiopia
Hurni, Hans
Lecture at the Faculty of Technology of the Addis Abeba University Download
Negotiating gender relations: Muslim women and formal employment in Pakistan’s rural development sector
Grünenfelder, Julia
Drawing on evidence from qualitative field research, this article explores how Pakistani female development practitioners experience their work situations as they are shaped both by local sociocultural norms and globalized development agendas. Grünenfelder J. 2012. Negotiating gender relations: Muslim women and formal employment in Pakistan’s rural development sector. Gender, Work and Organization. Available at Onlinelibrary.wiley
How remote are Vietnam's ethnic minorities? An analysis of spatial patterns of poverty and inequality.
Epprecht, Michael
This paper investigates whether physical accessibility or ethnicity is a stronger determinant of poverty in Vietnam. Spatially disaggregated welfare indexes for population subgroups show that overall inequality is shaped by an urban–rural welfare divide, closely followed in importance by sharp welfare differences between ethnic groups. Accessibility to urban areas is a weaker determinant of poverty.The findings have important implications for the targeting of rural development investments. Addressing the factors isolating ethnic minorities from the mainstream economy is likely to be a more useful strategy in reducing rural poverty and inequality than simple geographic targeting. The Annals of Regional Science. doi: 10.1007/s00168-009-0330-7 Download
Synergy between public health and veterinary services to deliver human and animal health interventions in rural low income settings
Schelling, Esther
This article argues that the collaboration between public health and veterinary services could increase coverage of essential health interventions for people and livestock in remote rural areas. British Medical Journal BMJ 2005, No. 331, pp. 1264-1267 Download from: British Medical Journal BMJ
Native trees and shrubs for the revitalization of sustainbale land use in rural communities in the Tunari National Park, Bolivia
Brandt, Regine
Poster presented at ZIL's Annual Conference 2006 - Trees for poverty alleviation. Download
The Tajik Pamirs: Livelihoods in rural areas
Domeisen, Michael
The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development. In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 39-44. Download
Critical analysis of rural development initiatives in Pakistan: implications for sustainable development
Luqman, Muhammad
In the global world poverty persists and dominates in rural areas. To develop rural people on sustained basis like other developing countries, in Pakistan many rural development programs were initiated during the last six decades but was terminated due to one or many reasons. The major concerns relating to the failure or termination of these programs were economic (well-being), social and environmental sustainability. In all the rural development programs focus was given increase in the production of agricultural farms and no emphasis was given to the non-farm income activities as well as environmental issues. Due to which poverty dominate and persists in rural areas, especially women and marginalized groups become more vulnerable. In this situation state should give special emphasis to environmental issues and rural non-farm income resources for sustainable development in the country. Luqman M, Shahbaz B, Ali T, Iftikhar M. 2013. Critical analysis of rural development initiatives in Pakistan: implications for sustainable development. Spanish Journal of Rural Development IV(1):67-74.
Making a Living in Uncertainty: Agro-Pastoral Livelihoods and Institutional Transformations in Post-Socialist Rural Kyrgyzstan
Steimann, Bernd
Why is rural Kyrgyzstan experiencing widespread poverty and a considerable divide between the wealthy and the poor – despite twenty years of independence and sustained efforts to reform the rural economy? Drawing on an innovative livelihoods perspective with a focus on institutions, the author illustrates how the Kyrgyz agrarian reforms of the 1990s have fundamentally altered rural property relations. Not only have the reforms redefined the economic value and social significance of land and other resources, they have redefined the livelihood prospects of the rural population. Existing disparities between the asset-rich and the asset-poor have been reinforced, and their social relations have increasingly become embedded in a poorly regulated economic system. The book provides a vivid example of the long-term effects of an agrarian “shock therapy” and shows how the introduction of seemingly “robust” institutions runs the risk of widening the existing gap between the rich and the poor. Download book (10.1 MB)
Analysis of institutional changes in forest management and their impact on rural livelihood strategies in NWFP, Pakistan
Shahbaz, Babar
PhD Thesis, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan Most of the natural forests of Pakistan are located in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). High rate of deforestation has brought into focus the shortfalls of traditional state controlled top-down systems of forest management. The participatory approach of forest management was started through Asian Development Bank’s funded Forestry Sector Project (FSP). The province's Forest Department was reformed, and village level committee were formed to join the forest department officials in preparing and implementing local resource use plans. The FSP developed and implemented these processes in a number of villages, expecting the reformed forest department to spread the concept throughout NWFP. This thesis analysed the impact of participatory forest management on livelihood assets, vulnerability and livelihood strategies based on a comparison of project villages with non-project villages; and thereby identifying the issues supporting or hindering the effectiveness of forest reforms and decentralisation process. Download
Impact of participatory forest management on financial assets of rural communities in Northwest Pakistan
Ali, Tanvir
"The system of participatory (or joint) forest management was commenced in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan in 1996 through Asian Development Bank's funded project. These forest reforms seek to initiate the process of eliminating the main causes of forest depletion through participation of local communities. Nevertheless, despite decades of the donor's interventions the deforestation rate in NWFP is still alarming. In this paper we have attempted to analyze the participatory forest management in Northwest Pakistan through livelihood lenses. More specifically this paper explores the impact of joint forest management initiatives on financial assets and livelihood strategies of local people. The overall results indicated that majority of the respondents were not dependent on the natural resources for their cash income rather they had adopted diverse non-natural resource based activities such as migration, labour etc. The results also indicated that the main priorities of the local people were financial and food security; where as the NWFP model of joint forest management gives more emphasis on forest protection and regeneration. Although the joint forest management enhanced the social assets of the local communities yet the omission of immediate financial benefits from the institutional changes in the forestry sector of NWFP was a barrier in motivating the local people in forest protection and was one of the main issues hindering the effectiveness of the forest reforms process." Ecological Economics 2007, Volume 63, Issues 2-3, pp. 588-593 Available from: ScienceDirect
Legal and institutional framework for empowerment of rural populations in the Kyrgyz Republic
Ibraimova, Asel
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
Energy for Gorno Badakhshan: Hydropower and the Cultivation of Firewood
Droux, Roman
Master's Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland This study provides an integral analysis of the energy situation and its consequences for land and energy resource use in rural areas of the Tajik Pamirs. It focuses on three main topics: (1) Energy consumption patterns at household and village levels, (2) use of micro and mini hydropower stations and their potential to relieve pressure on local biomass fuels, and (3) land degradation related to unsustainable energy resource use. Download
'A female ... will not be available here': Gendered labour markets in Northwest Pakistan's rural development sector
Grünenfelder, Julia
While Pakistan has legally binding mechanisms to promote gender equality in employment, labour markets are shaped by the highly gender-segregated society they are embedded in. Based on the conceptualisation of labour markets as gendered institutions, I explore how gender generates unequal access to the labour market for social organisers—a term referring to a type of development practitioner—in the Hazara region, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, making it difficult for women to participate in an occupational field where they are urgently needed to work with village women. go to publisher's website
Conflicting strategies for contested resources: Pastoralists' responses to uncertainty in post-socialist rural Kyrgyzstan
Steimann, Bernd
Based on a case study in rural Kyrgyzstan, this chapter explores the multiple constraints which shape agro-pastoral practices today and how local households respond to them. To do so, it distinguishes between different forms of uncertainty, that is, social and political, livelihoods, knowledge and ecological uncertainties. Results show that Kyrgyz agro-pastoralists must respond to much more than ecological uncertainties only, and that the extent of these uncertainties differs a lot between the rich and the poor. Steimann B. 2012. Conflicting strategies for contested resources: Pastoralists' responses to uncertainty in post-socialist rural Kyrgyzstan. In: Kreutzmann H. (editor). Pastoral Practices in High Asia. Agency of 'development' effected by modernisation, resettlement and transformation. Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York, London: Springer, pp. 145-160. Available here