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Intégration de la population dans les mesures de protection
Hufty, Marc
"La mise en place d’aires protégées est un instrument essentiel pour la conservation de la diversité biologique. Mais elle ne peut aboutir que si les mesures de protection tiennent compte des besoins de la population locale." Hotspot 2006, No. 14, p. 11 Download PDF from: Swiss Academy of Science
Protection: A Means for Sustainable Development?
Wallner, Astrid
The Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn World Heritage Site (WHS) comprises landscapes that are shaped by centuries of traditional agricultural use. Given the dramatic changes in the agricultural sector, the risk faced by cultural landscapes in the Region is possibly greater than that faced by the natural landscape inside the perimeter of the WHS. Maintaining the right balance between preservation of the WHS and promotion of sustainable regional development constitutes a key challenge for management of the WHS. This process made it possible to jointly define the present situation and thus create a basis for legitimising future action. From this participatory process, a link between the concepts of ‘protected area’ and sustainable development in the region emerged. Download
"But now men also listen to the women"
Locher, Martina
Asiatische Studien / Études Asiatiques 2007, LXI - 4/2007, pp. 1113-1139. Order this publication from: Peter Lang Publishing Group
Opportunities and risks in reconciling conservation and development in a post-Soviet setting: The example of the Tajik National Park
Haslinger, Andrea
In the Tajik National Park (TNP) - a high-altitude area of nearly 26,000 km2 in Central Asia - past and present human activities visibly contrast with standard conservation requirements for protected areas worldwide. This paper focuses on resource management, and highlights three major processes that threaten both the sustainable use of natural resources and the preservation of nature per se: (i) intensified use of biomass as a fuel resource, (ii) inappropriate pasture management, and (iii) increased pressure on endangered wildlife. From analysis of these processes - their historical background, root causes, trends and interrelationships - options and needs to improve park management are proposed and discussed. International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management. 2007, 3(3)157-169. Available from: Ingenta Connect
Sustainable land management – a new approach to soil and water conservation in Ethiopia
Mitiku, Haile
This book suggests following the broader approach of Sustainable Land Management (SLM), which aims at ecological soundness, economic viability and social acceptability, and thus places SWC in a more holistic framework that is closer to farmers’ reality. This, however, requires that soil and water conservation (SWC) experts focus less on searching for standard solutions valid once and for all, and more on engaging in a continuous process of developing and adapting technologies with farmers. The present book was written for future SWC and land management experts in Ethiopia. It is based on results of the country’s Soil Conservation Research Program (SCRP), and the experience of researchers, experts, extension workers and Ethiopian peasants. The book aims to encourage readers to take a more critical look at land problems and responses to them, to ask more critical questions, and not to take standard solutions for granted. Download
Impact monitoring in soil and water conservation.
Herweg, Karl
Despite the huge amount of information available on soil and water conservation (SWC), there seems to be a considerable gap in knowledge about the impact of SWC technologies, such as the effectiveness of on-farm technologies in controlling soil erosion, their impact on human and natural resources, cost-benefit ratios, the level of integration into prevailing farming systems, etc. This paper introduces a methodology for impact monitoring and assessment developed by an international expert group over the past years. More than anything else, impact monitoring requires a significant change of mind. This involves looking beyond one’s own profession and even one’s own mandate. The focus of the methodology presented is on sustainable land management, which puts SWC into a wider thematic framework and thus helps to identify a broader range of the side-effects and impacts of SWC activities. In: De Graaf J, Sombatpanit S. (Eds.): Monitoring and Evaluation of Soil Conservation and Watershed Development Projects. World Association of Soil and Water Conservation.
Les politiques de conservation de la nature au cœur de l’internationalisation et de la convergence des ordres politiques
Dumoulin, David
Numéro Spécial de la Revue de la CEPAL, Amérique latine 2005, CEPAL-IHEAL, Santiago du Chili, mai 2005.
Development of conservation agriculture: Application and spread
Schäfer, Natalie
Master Thesis at University of Bern Download
Stations of the soil conservation research programme (SCRP) in Ethiopia
Herweg, Karl
In: Hurni H, Bantider A, Herweg K, Portner B, Veit, H, editors. Landscape Transformation and Sustainable Development in Ethiopia. Background information for a study tour through Ethiopia, 4-20 September 2006. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern.
Soil erosion and conservation in global agriculture
Hurni, Hans
Land-use change is one of the main drivers of many environmental change processes. It influences the basic resources of land use, including the soil. Its impact on soil often occurs so creepingly that land managers hardly contemplate initiating ameliorative or counterbalance measures. Poor land management has degraded vast amounts of land, reduced our ability to produce enough food, and is a major threat to rural livelihoods in many developing countries. To date, there has been no single unifying volume that addresses the multifaceted impacts of land use on soils. This book has responded to this challenge by bringing together renowned academics and policy experts to analyze the patterns, driving factors and proximate causes, and the socioeconomic impacts of soil degradation. Policy measures to prevent irreversible degradation and rehabilitate degraded soils are also identified. In: Braimoh AK, Vlek PLG, editors. Land Use and Soil Resources. Dordrecht, The Netherlands; London, UK: Springer, pp 41–71. Download from: Springer
Between Conservation and Development
Wiesmann, Urs
This article presents an empirical interdisciplinary study of an extensive participatory process that was carried out in 2004 in the recently established World Natural Heritage Site "Jungfrau–Aletsch–Bietschhorn” in the Swiss Alps. The study used qualitative and quantitative empirical methods of social science to address the question of success factors in establishing and concretizing a World Heritage Site. Mountain Research and Development 2005, Vol 25 No 2, pp. 128–138
Enhanced Decision-Making Based on Local Knowledge
Liniger, Hanspeter
Many types of problems caused by land degradation can be documented worldwide. The main natural resources affected are soils, water, natural vegetation, and wildlife; but cultivated plants are exposed to even greater damage, which poses a threat to food security as well. Soil degradation is one of the most crucial processes of land degradation and environmental change. Over a quarter of the world's agricultural land has been damaged by long-term soil degradation, corresponding to one-tenth of the earth's land surface. Every day land users and soil and water conservation (SWC) specialists evaluate experience and generate know-how related to land management, improvement of soil fertility, and protection of soil resources. Most of this valuable knowledge, however, is not well documented or easily accessible, and comparison of different types of experience is difficult. The World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) has the mission of providing tools that allow SWC specialists to share their valuable knowledge in soil and water management, assist them in their search for appropriate SWC technologies and approaches, and support them in making decisions in the field and at the planning level. Mountain Research and Development 2002, 22(1), pp. 14-18 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Where Are the Poor and Where Are the Trees?
Müller, Daniel
"This paper highlights the spatial linkages of forest quality with poverty incidence and poverty density in Vietnam. Most of the Vietnamese poor live in densely populated river deltas and cities while remote upland areas have the highest poverty incidences, gaps, and severities. Forests of high local and global value are located in areas where relatively few poor people live, but where the incidence, gap, and severity of poverty are strongest, and where the livelihood strategies are based on agricultural and forest activities. Analysis was conducted combining country-wide spatial data on commune-level poverty estimates and the geographic distribution of forest quality. The results suggest the usefulness of targeting investments in remote areas that combine poverty reduction and environmental sustainability." Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) 2006, Working Paper No. 34 PDF Download
Land Use, Soil Degradation and Soil Conservation in the Loess Hills of Central Tajikistan
Wolfgramm, Bettina
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland For further information, please contact the author
On- and Off-site Effectiveness of Soil and Water Conservation in Switzerland
Schneider , Flurina
Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of Swiss Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART. Download
Resource governance and livelihood concerns: Park-people conflict in the Eastern Terai of Nepal.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Nepal is known as one of the world’s most conservation-friendly countries, with more than 18% of its total area as protected areas. However, because of the top-down, bureaucratically oriented, exclusionary governance systems practised in the protected areas, there is tension between park authorities and local people that ultimately causes livelihood insecurities. Most of the sufferers from the poor conservation governing systems in Nepal are poor, marginalised and indigenous people. As indigenous people are the victims of protected area management systems, an intense debate on the property rights and prior rights of indigenous people has emerged. To shed light on this debate, the author has employed the conceptual framework of legal pluralism, thereby providing better understanding of the conflict between the customary rights exercised by the indigenous communities and the formal legal arrangements of the state. In: Geiser U, Rist S, editors. Decentralisation Meets Local Complexity: Local Struggles, State Decentralisation and Acces to Natural Resources in South Asia and Latin America. Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp 217-248. Download
Reconciling biodiversity conservation priorities with livelihood needs in Kangchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal
Gurung, Ghana
Human Geography Series 2006, Vol. 23. Department of Human Geography, Institute of Geography, University of Zurich, Zurich. 192 pp. ISBN 3-906302-06-7 Order from: Department of Geography, University of Zurich
Part 1: Analysis and policy implications. In: Where the land is greener. Case studies and analysis of soil and water conservation initiatives worldwide
Liniger, Hanspeter
Various land use categories are covered here – cropland, as well as forest and grazing land. The technologies range from terraces to agroforestry systems; from rehabilitation of common pastures to conservation agriculture; from vermiculture to water harvesting. Several are well established successes – others are innovative, relatively unknown and full of promise. The technologies are matched by studies of the ‘approaches’ that have underpinned their development and spread. Some of these approaches are descriptions of projects, but there are also fascinating explanations of how spontaneous development and spread has taken place. The book does not stop with case studies: there are two analytical sections, taking the technologies and approaches in turn. Finally there are policy pointers for decision makers and donors, who are challenged to invest further – to make the land greener. In: Liniger HP, Critchley W, editors. WOCAT
Traditional ecological knowledge, land use and ecosystem diversity in the Tunari National Park (Bolivia)
Boillat, Sebastien
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland This thesis has the overall goal of contributing to the development of the emerging approach of “nature-society hybrids” by setting the fundaments for a dialogue between the needs of biodiversity conservation and the needs and claims of indigenous and traditional people. It is based on the assumption that indigenous and traditional people may not be conservationists “by default”, because the concept of biodiversity conservation has emerged from a concern of modern science and global policy in the developed world that they do not share necessarily. Nevertheless, indigenous communities may have traditional land use practices that are at the same time deeply rooted in their traditional knowledge and specific cultural worldview, and highly relevant for the conservation of biodiversity. The main objective of the thesis was to analyze the links between traditional ecological knowledge, land use and the diversity of ecosystems, as a basis for the promotion of sustainable development, understood as results emerging from the dialogue between scientific and traditional ecological knowledge. Download (9.5 MB)
Reconciling conservation and livelihood needs in protected areas of Nepal
Gurung, Ghana
In: Jeff McNeely, Tom McCarthy, Andrew Smith, Linda Whittaker and Eric Wikramnayake, editors. 2006. Conservation Biology in Asia. Kathmandu: Society for Conservation Biology Asia Section and Resources Himalaya Foundation, pp. 45-61 Order from: Resources Himalaya Foundation
Gouvernance des forêts et conservation en Bolivie
Hufty, Marc
In: Auroi C, Milbert I., Hufty M. Où va la Bolivie?
Gobernanza de los bosques y conservación en Bolivia
Hufty, Marc
In: Marc Hufty, Claude Auroi and Manuel de la Fuente, editors. 2005. ¿A dónde va Bolivia? Gobernancia, gobernabilidad y democratización, La Paz, Plural Editores; NCCR North-South, pp. 149-181 Available for purchase from: Libros Andinos
Fortalecimiento de la organización comunal
Serrano, Elvira
"Fortalecimiento de la organización comunal: estrategia para la conservación y regeneración de bosques andino" in: Delgado F, Serrano E, Bilbao J. editors. 2004. Agroforesteria en Latinoaméria: Experiencias Locales, Cochabamba, MALEA- AGRUCO, pp. 41-50. Order from: agruco.org