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Solid–liquid separation of faecal sludge using drying beds in Ghana
Cofie, Olufunke
This study investigated the possibility of recycling nutrients in human excreta and municipal solid waste for use in agriculture. It reports on the use of drying beds in separating solid and liquid fractions of faecal sludge (FS) so that the solids can be co-composted and the organic matter and part of the nutrients captured for urban agriculture... Water Research 2006, 40:1, pp. 75-82 Available Online from: Science Direct
A Discrete-Event Dynamic Systems Approach for Environmental Decision-Support
Huang, Dong-Bin
PhD Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland In his thesis, Dong-Bin Huang developed an event-based dynamic material flow and life-cycle-inventory modeling method and applied it in the urban area of Kunming (China) for urban water resource planning and pollution control of Dianchi Lake. Download
Confronting limitations
Huang, Dong-Bin
"Despite continuous investment and various efforts to control pollution, urban water environments are worsening in large parts of the developing world. In order to reveal potential constraints and limitations of current practices of urban water management and to stimulate proactive intervention, we conducted a material flow analysis of the urban water system in Kunming City. The results demonstrate that the current efficiency of wastewater treatment is only around 25% and the emission of total phosphorous from the city into its receiving water, Dianchi Lake, is more than 25 times higher than its estimated tolerance. With regard to the crisis of water quantity and quality, the goal of a sustainable urban water environment cannot be attained with the current problem-solving approach in the region due to the technical limitations of the conventional urban drainage and treatment systems. A set of strategies is therefore proposed. The urban drainage system in Zurich is used as a reference for a potential best-available technology for conventional urban water management (BAT) scenario in terms of its low combined frequency of sewer overflow." Journal of Environmental Management, online since July 2006 Available online from: ScienceDirect
Treatment of septage in constructed wetlands in tropical climate
Koottatep, Thammarat
In tropical regions, where most of the developing countries are located, septic tanks and other onsite sanitation systems are the predominant form of storage and pre-treatment of excreta and wastewater, generating septage and other types of sludges. The septage is disposed of untreated, mainly due to lack of affordable treatment options. This study presents lessons that have been learned from the operation of pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) for septage treatment since 1997. The experiments have been conducted by using three CW units planted with narrow-leave cattails (Typha augustifolia) and operating in a vertical-flow mode. Based on the experimental results, it can be suggested that the optimum solids loading rate be 250 kg TS/m2 yr and 6-day percolate impoundment. At these operational conditions, the removal efficiencies of CW units treating septage at the range of 80–96% for COD, TS and TKN were achieved. The biosolid accumulated on the CW units to a depth of 80 cm has never been removed during 7 years of operation, but bed permeability remained unimpaired. The biosolid contains viable helminth eggs below critical limit of sludge quality standards for agricultural use. Subject to local conditions, the suggested operational criteria should be reassessed at the full-scale implementation. Keywords Nutrient removal; operation; helminth eggs; septage treatment; vertical-flow constructed wetlands Water Science and Technology 2005, Vol. 51, No. 9, pp. 119–126 Available for purchase from: IWA Publishing
Health risks related to wastewater reuse in Thailand using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA)
Ferrer Duch, Aleix
In the context of the Work Package 3 (Health and Environmental sanitation)within the NCCR North-South, a conceptual framework has been developed using an approach combining health, ecological, socio-economic and cultural assessments. Master's Thesis at University of Basel Download
Assessment of water quality problems and mitigation potentials by using material flow analysis
Schaffner, Monika
"Material flow analysis (MFA) is a promising tool for river water quality management. Based on orders-ofmagnitude estimations, the approach provides an overview of pollution problems and their dimensions in a river system, allowing to identify key sources and pathways of pollution, and to evaluate mitigation priorities. The current study aims at investigating MFA to assess river water quality problems and mitigation measures in developing countries, based on a case-study carried out in the Tha Chin River Basin (TRB), Thailand." Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Role of Water Sciences in Transboundary River Basin Management, Ubon Ratchathani (Thailand), 10-12 March 2005 Download PDF from: MekongBasinResearchNetwork
People’s Choice First
Lüthi, Christoph
NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 22 Bern, NCCR North-South
Improving Farmers' Wastewater Handling Practice in Vietnam
Van, Tu Vu
This study focuses on perceptions and awareness of farmers and practical aspects of wastewater reuse in two communities of northern Vietnam. Download
Potentials of vertical flow constructed wetlands for faecal sludge dewatering in Subsaharian countries
Kengne Noumsi, Ives Magloire
PhD Thesis, University of Yaoundé, Cameroon For further information please contact the author
Vulnérabilité et résilience des populations riveraines liées à la pollution des eaux lagunaires de la métropole d'Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
Koné, Brama
"La lagune d'Abidjan est polluée par les déchets urbains. Les populations périurbaines, riveraines de cette lagune sont exposées à la pollution. L'étude porte sur l'évaluation des aspects de vulnérabilité et de résilience des populations exposées. Neuf "focus groups" ou groupes de discussion ont été réalisés sur trois sites qui bordent la lagune. Les populations étudiées se disent victimes de "la ville". Les aspects de leur vulnérabilité rapportés par elles sont entre autres les mauvaises odeurs qui émanent des eaux lagunaires, les mouches et moustiques qui se multiplient en lagune et qui leur apportent des maladies comme le paludisme et les diarrhées, les démangeaisons de corps dont les pêcheurs se plaignent. En ce qui concerne les aspects de résilience, des actions individuelles d'entretien des berges lagunaires sont menées par endroit. Le capital financier, humain et social des malades ou de leur famille joue un rôle important dans leur résilience en cas de maladie." VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement 2006, hors série 3, Article 5 Download PDF from: VertigO
The Challenge of Faecal Sludge Management in Urban Areas
Ingallinella, A.M.
In urban centres of industrialising countries, the majority of houses are served by on-site sanitation systems such as septic tanks and unsewered toilets. The faecal sludges (FS) collected from these systems are usually discharged untreated into the urban and peri-urban environment, posing great risks to water resources and to public health. Contrary to wastewater management, the development of strategies to cope with faecal sludges, adapted to the conditions prevailing in developing countries, have long been neglected. The authors describe the current situation and discuss selected issues of FS management. A proposal is made for a rational setting of sludge quality or treatment standards in economically emerging countries [...]. Water Science and Technology 2002, Vol. 46, No. 10, pp. 285-294. Available for purchase from: IWA Publishing
Alarm – zu viele Nährstoffe im Tha Chin Fluss
Schaffner, Monika
"Mit zunehmender landwirtschaftlicher Intensivierung hat sich die Wasserqualität des Tha Chin in Thailand massiv verschlechtert. Ein enormes Problem ist der hohe Nährstoffgehalt des Flusses. Unser Stoffflussmodell zeigt, dass ein Grossteil der Nährstoffe aus der intensiven Fischzucht stammt." Eawag News 62d December 2006, pp. 18-20. Download
Wastewater Management in Kunming, China
Medilanski, Edi
"Large sewer systems with central wastewater treatment plants were long considered a successful model that could be exported to practically any city of the world. This centralized, highly water-consuming system has, however, shown its limits in some developing and transition countries, especially in fastgrowing cities with limited water resources. This study from around Lake Dianchi in Yunnan, China, investigated the feasibility of introducing measures at the source for the different urban wastewater contributions in the city of Kunming, and the stakeholder perspectives on this approach. In addition, the stakeholders evaluated the potential of two different sanitation alternatives that allowed the separation and re-use of human excreta as fertilizer." Environment and Urbanization 2006, Vol 18, No. 2, pp. 353–368 Download
Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from Households
Koottatep, Thammarat
"This paper presents the outcomes of pilot-scale experiments on anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) and polishing systems for the treatment of domestic blackwater, aimed at determining the treatment performance of different integrated low-cost wastewater treatment systems, comprising one ABR as first treatment step followed by three polishing steps operated in parallel, namely an anaerobic filter an intermittent sand filter and a vertical flow constructed wetland. A mixture of septage and domestic wastewater was used as influent wastewater, resulting in influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations of 1,000 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The ABR system operated at a HRT of 48h could achieve average COD, suspended solids (SS) and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies of 90%, 93% and 50%, respectively. The highest treatment performances in the sand filter and constructed wetland units were reached at HLR of 7 – 10 and 6 – 10 cm/day, respectively, while HRT in the range of 3 - 4 days led to the highest treatment efficiencies in the anaerobic filter. The national effluent standards of Thailand were respected by all systems in terms of average TSS and BOD concentrations. Rather than concluding which system is the most appropriate, the paper discusses specific fields of application for the different systems." Proceedings of the 7th Specialised Conference on Small Water and Wastewater Systems, 7-10 March 2006, Mexico City, Mexico Download
Potentials and Limitations of Existing Technical Alternatives on Waste and Wastewater Management in Cat Bi Ward, Haiphong City, Vietnam
Bao, Pham Ngoc
Master's Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand "This study focus on investigation in details the potential and limitations of existing technical alternatives on human excreta and domestic wastewater management in Haiphong, with a case study in Cat Bi ward, where there is a huge potential for using of onsite and decentralised sanitations for human excreta and wastewater disposal and where people having high potential of willing to pay for wastewater and sanitation fee. SWOT analysis technique has been used in the evaluation process. [...]" Download
Assessment of on-site Sanitation Systems in Peri-urban Communities by Using Selected Sustainability Indicators
Jiawkok, Supattra
Master's Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand In her MSc thesis, Supattra Jiawkok assessed the existing on-site sanitation systems treating black water in peri-urban communities including (i) the one-cesspool system, (ii) the two-cesspool system in series and (iii) the package tank system at Muaeng Klong Luang Municipality, Klong Luang district, Pathum Thani Province, Thailand. Download
Material Flux Analysis for Waste and Wastewater Management Planning
Sinsupan, Thitiphon
Master's Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand This thesis describes problems as well as potential solutions in the field of environmental sanitation based on the analysis of nitrogen flows in the city of Pakkret, Thailand. Download
Implementing the Bellagio Principles in Urban Environmental Sanitation Services
[Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology], Eawag
This guideline presents the Household-Centred Environmental Sanitation (HCES) approach, which was developed by an Environmental Sanitation Working Group of the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC). Download PDF or order hard copy from: Eawag (Available in English and French)
Formulating Waste Management Strategies Based on Waste Management Practices of Households in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
Mosler, Hans-Joachim
Rapid urbanisation, population growth and changes in lifestyles in low- and middle-income countries contribute to increasing the per capita domestic waste generation. This trend leads to deplorable environmental and public health conditions, especially in rapidly expanding cities of low- and middle-income countries lacking appropriate waste management systems, Santiago de Cuba is no exception. To improve solid waste management in the city of Santiago de Cuba, the generation of household waste was studied and individual waste treatment approaches were assessed. The paper contains the results of the composition and distribution of the waste generated by the households as a function of socio-demographic data. Furthermore, the paper describes the various household treatment strategies dependent on specific waste material types. Habitat International 2006, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp. 849-862 Available online from: Science Direct
Identifying the Institutional Decision Process to Introduce Decentralized Sanitation in the City of Kunming (China)
Medilanski, Edi
"We conducted a study of the institutional barriers to introducing urine source separation in the urban area of Kunming, China. On the basis of a stakeholder analysis, we constructed stakeholder diagrams showing the relative importance of decision-making power and (positive) interest in the topic. A hypothetical decision-making process for the urban case was derived based on a successful pilot project in a periurban area. All our results were evaluated by the stakeholders. We concluded that although a number of primary stakeholders have a large interest in testing urine source separation also in an urban context, most of the key stakeholders would be reluctant to this idea. However, the success in the periurban area showed that even a single, well-received pilot project can trigger the process of broad dissemination of new technologies. Whereas the institutional setting for such a pilot project is favorable in Kunming, a major challenge will be to adapt the technology to the demands of an urban population. Methodologically, we developed an approach to corroborate a stakeholder analysis with the perception of the stakeholders themselves. This is important not only in order to validate the analysis but also to bridge the theoretical gap between stakeholder analysis and stakeholder involvement. We also show that in disagreement with the assumption of most policy theories, local stakeholders consider informal decision pathways to be of great importance in actual policy-making." Environmental Management 2007, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 648-662 Available from: SpringerLink
An Integrated Approach to Environmental Sanitation and Urban Agriculture
Schertenleib, Roland
"Environmental sanitation comprises disposal and treatment of human excreta, solid waste and wastewater, control of disease vectors, and provision of washing facilities for personal and domestic hygiene. The conventional approach to environmental sanitation is characterised by a linear waste management system, where valuable plant nutrients are often not only wasted, but also create pollution problems in receiving waters. Closing the nutrient loop is one of the main objectives of a more ecological approach to environmental sanitation. Reuse of wastewater and organic waste in urban agriculture may contribute to closing this nutrient loop. In addition to food security and income generation, urban agricultural activities can thus help to improve public health and resource management. However, some urban agricultural processes, such as “agricultural practices”, “soil quality management” and “irrigation”, still requires further research." ISHS Acta Horticulturae 2004, No. 643: International Conference on Urban Horticulture Available from: ISHS Acta Horticulturae