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A model of animal-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia
Zinsstag, Jakob
"We developed a dynamic model of livestock-to-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia. The compartmental model considers transmission within sheep and cattle populations and the transmission to humans as additive components. The model was fitted to demographic and seroprevalence data (Rose Bengal test) from livestock and annually reported new human brucellosis cases in Mongolia for 1991–1999 prior to the onset of a mass livestock-vaccination campaign (S19 Brucella abortus for cattle and Rev1 Brucella melitensis for sheep and goat). The vaccination effect was fitted to livestock- and human-brucellosis data from the first 3 years of the vaccination campaign (2000–2002). Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (assessed by the deviance). The simultaneously fitted sheep–human and cattle–human contact rates show that 90% of human brucellosis was small-ruminant derived. Average effective reproductive ratios for the year 1999 were 1.2 for sheep and 1.7 for cattle." Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2005, Vol. 69, Issues 1-2, pp. 77-95 Available from: Science Direct
Potential of cooperation between human and animal health to strengthen health systems
Zinsstag, Jakob
"The WHO ministerial summit held in Mexico City, Mexico, on Nov 16–20, 2004, recognised the pivotal role of strengthened health systems in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in an equity-effective manner. Its resolutions encourage health systems research to include broad societal dimensions. One extension involves closer interaction between human and animal health, for which the US epidemiologist Calvin Schwabe coined the term “one medicine”, to focus attention on the similarity between human and veterinary health interests. [...]" The Lancet 2005, Vol. 366, Issue 9503, pp. 2142-2145 Available online from: The Lancet Download PDF from: The Lancet
Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis
Roth, F.
"Objective: To estimate the economic benefit, cost-effectiveness, and distribution of benefit of improving human health in Mongolia through the control of brucellosis by mass vaccination of livestock. [...] Findings: In a scenario of 52% reduction of brucellosis transmission between animals achieved by mass vaccination, a total of 49 027 DALYs could be averted. Estimated intervention costs were US$ 8.3 million, and the overall benefit was US$ 26.6 million. This results in a net present value of US$ 18.3 million and an average benefit–cost ratio for society of 3.2 (2.27–4.37). If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 11%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of US$ 19.1 per DALY averted (95% confidence interval 5.3–486.8). If private economic gain because of improved human health was included, the health sector should contribute 42% to the intervention costs and the costeffectiveness would decrease to US$ 71.4 per DALY averted. Conclusion: If the costs of vaccination of livestock against brucellosis were allocated to all sectors in proportion to the benefits, the intervention might be profitable and cost effective for the agricultural and health sectors." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003, Vol. 81, Number 12, pp. 867-876 Download PDF from: The World Health Organization