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Evaluation of the discriminatory power of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium bovis strains
Hilty, Markus
The discriminatory power of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing based on 16 known loci (12 MIRUs, 3 ETRs and VNTR 3232) was assessed for Mycobacterium bovis strains collected sequentially at the slaughterhouse of N’Djaména, Chad. Of 67 M. bovis strains analyzed, 67% were clustered. In this study, VNTR typing was highly discriminative with an overall allelic diversity (hoa) of 0.922. We defined five loci (ETR A, B, C and MIRU 26, 27) as highly (h > 0.25), two loci (MIRU 4, and VNTR 3232) as moderately (0.11 < h < 0.25) and three loci (MIRU 16, 20, 31) as poorly (0.01 < h < 0.11) discriminative. Six loci (MIRU 2, 10, 23, 24, 39, and 40) showed no polymorphism at all. VNTR typing of the five highly discriminative loci (h = 0.917) proved to be most appropriate for first line typing of M. bovis strains of Chad and superior than spoligotyping (hsp = 0.789). In contrast to Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, a consensus on VNTR loci needs to be found for M. bovis strains. The selection of a generally agreed set of VNTR loci for molecular discrimination of M. bovis in different geographical settings is discussed. Veterinary Microbiology 2005, Vol. 109, Issues 3-4, pp. 217-222 Available from: ScienceDirect
Mycobacterium bovis Isolates from Tuberculous Lesions in Chadian Zebu Carcasses
Diguimbaye, Colette
"This slaughterhouse study in Chad shows higher proportions of Mycobacterium bovis isolates among Mbororo than Arabe zebu cattle. Spoligotyping shows a homogenetic population structure for M. bovis and lack of spacer 30, as were found in neighboring Cameroon and Nigeria. This finding suggests transborder and ongoing transmission between cattle." Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. Available online from: Emerging Infectious Diseases Download PDF from: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Molecular epidemiology of mycobacteria
Hilty, Markus
PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Switzerland "One approach of molecular epidemiology of mycobacteria is the genotyping and comparison of DNA of infectious strains in order to monitor the transmission pathways of diseases. It is based on the assumption that patients infected with clustered strains are epidemiologically linked. Such results may help in understanding the modes of transmission and therefore in putting in place an adapted control strategy. [...] Therefore the overall aim of this study was to contribute to the development and refinement of innovative molecular typing tools in order to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis, bovis and ulcerans infections." Download
The Strongyloides (Nematoda) of sheep and the predominant Strongyloides of cattle form at least two different, genetically isolated populations
Eberhardt, AG
Strongyloides sp. (Nematoda) are very wide spread small intestinal parasites of vertebrates that can form a facultative free-living generation. Most authors considered all Strongyloides of farm ruminants to belong to the same species, namely Strongyloides papillosus (Wedl, 1856). Here we show that, at least in southern Germany, the predominant Strongyloides found in cattle and the Strongyloides found in sheep belong to separate, genetically isolated populations. While we did find mixed infections in cattle, one form clearly dominated. This variety, in turn, was never found in sheep, indicating that the two forms have different host preferences.We also present molecular tools for distinguishing the two varieties, and an analysis of their phylogenetic relationship with the human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis and the major laboratory model species Strongyloides ratti. Keywords: Strongyloides papillosus; Strongyloides vituli; Nematodes; Host specifity Veterinary Parasitology 157:89-99. Download