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Evaluation of the discriminatory power of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium bovis strains
Hilty, Markus
The discriminatory power of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing based on 16 known loci (12 MIRUs, 3 ETRs and VNTR 3232) was assessed for Mycobacterium bovis strains collected sequentially at the slaughterhouse of N’Djaména, Chad. Of 67 M. bovis strains analyzed, 67% were clustered. In this study, VNTR typing was highly discriminative with an overall allelic diversity (hoa) of 0.922. We defined five loci (ETR A, B, C and MIRU 26, 27) as highly (h > 0.25), two loci (MIRU 4, and VNTR 3232) as moderately (0.11 < h < 0.25) and three loci (MIRU 16, 20, 31) as poorly (0.01 < h < 0.11) discriminative. Six loci (MIRU 2, 10, 23, 24, 39, and 40) showed no polymorphism at all. VNTR typing of the five highly discriminative loci (h = 0.917) proved to be most appropriate for first line typing of M. bovis strains of Chad and superior than spoligotyping (hsp = 0.789). In contrast to Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, a consensus on VNTR loci needs to be found for M. bovis strains. The selection of a generally agreed set of VNTR loci for molecular discrimination of M. bovis in different geographical settings is discussed. Veterinary Microbiology 2005, Vol. 109, Issues 3-4, pp. 217-222 Available from: ScienceDirect
Mycobacterium bovis Isolates from Tuberculous Lesions in Chadian Zebu Carcasses
Diguimbaye, Colette
"This slaughterhouse study in Chad shows higher proportions of Mycobacterium bovis isolates among Mbororo than Arabe zebu cattle. Spoligotyping shows a homogenetic population structure for M. bovis and lack of spacer 30, as were found in neighboring Cameroon and Nigeria. This finding suggests transborder and ongoing transmission between cattle." Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. Available online from: Emerging Infectious Diseases Download PDF from: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Human and Animal Health in Nomadic Pastoralist Communities of Chad
Schelling, Esther
PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Switzerland The health of nomadic pastoralists is influenced by factors specific to their way of life. Veterinary services provide vaccination against feared livestock diseases such as anthrax. Agents transmissible between livestock and humans (zoonotic agents) may have an important impact on the health status of pastoralists because they live in close contact to their animals. However, morbidity of nomadic pastoralists in Chad had not been documented and their everyday use of health services was virtually unknown. A research collaboration between veterinary and public health was implemented to evaluate morbidity of nomadic pastoralists and of their animals simultaneously and to test intersectoral pilot-interventions following the concept of “one medicine”.
Seasonal epidemiology of ticks and aspects of cowdriosis in N’Dama village cattle in the Central Guinea savannah of Côte d’Ivoire
Knopf, Lea
In the Central Guinea savannah of Côte d’Ivoire, cattle breeding started only 30 years ago. The impact of parasitism on the overall health status and productivity of the trypanotolerant N’Dama cattle in this area is unknown. In close collaboration with national veterinary institutions and local farmers, we studied spectrum, burden and seasonal dynamics of ticks (including aspects of cowdriosis) on N’Dama village cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2002, Vol. 53, Issues 1-2, pp. 21-30 Available online from: ScienceDirect
Epidémiologie moléculaire des premiers isolements de mycobactéries chez l'animal au Tchad
Schelling, Esther
"The first laboratory to culture mycobacteria was established in Chad to confirm the presence of bovine tuberculosis and to describe the distribution of M. tuberculosis complex strains in livestock and humans. Specimens were collected on condemned animal carcasses due to tuberculosis. Spoligotyping and analysis of Variable Numbers Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) have been used on 67 M. bovis strains. The prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions at the slaughterhouse was 7.3%. More M’bororo than Arab zebus were condemned (p = 0.04), M’bororo carcasses were more often entirely condemned in comparison to a partial condemnation (p ≤ 0.001) and M. bovis was more often isolated from Mbororo carcasses than from Arab zebu (p = 0.004). [...]" "Le premier laboratoire de culture des mycobactéries a été établi au Tchad pour confirmer la présence de la tuberculose bovine chez le bétail et pour évaluer la répartition des souches du complexe Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Les prélèvements ont été réalisés sur des carcasses d’animaux saisis pour cause de tuberculose. Le typage moléculaie par spoligotypie et le typage des VNTR (séquences répétées en nombre variable) ont été réalisés avec 67 souches M. bovis du Tchad. La prévalence de lésions tuberculeuses à l’abattoir était de 7,3%. Davantage de carcasse de zébus M’bororos ont été saisies par rapport aux zébus Arabes (p = 0,04); une saisie totale en comparaison à une saisie partielle a été plus souvent effectuée chez les Mbororos (p ≤ 0,001) et M. bovis a été plus fréquemment isolé chez les zébus Mbororos que chez les Arabes (p = 0,004). [...]" Épidémiologie et Santé Animale 2005, No. 48, pp. 81-91 Available for download from: L'Association pour l'Étude de l'Épidémiologie des Maladies Animales
Approche novatrice des vaccinations en santé publique et en médecine vétérinaire chez les pasteurs au Tchad
Béchir, Mahamat
This report describes a network of public health care workers, veterinarians and nomadic pastoralists that was set up in Chad to increase vaccination coverage to nomadic children and women who had rarely been vaccinated before. The objectives of the project were to provide human vaccination in conjunction with existing veterinary services, to evaluate the feasibility and limitations of such campaigns, to determine what other services could be provided concurrently, and to estimate the savings for public health care cases in comparison with carrying out vaccination separately. The joint vaccination campaign approach is innovative, appreciated by nomadic pastoralists and less expensive than separate vaccination. By using the mobility of veterinarians in remote zones far from health care facilities, vaccination can be provided to nomadic children and women in countries with limited resources. Médecine Tropicale 2004, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 497-502 Download
Synergy between public health and veterinary services to deliver human and animal health interventions in rural low income settings
Schelling, Esther
This article argues that the collaboration between public health and veterinary services could increase coverage of essential health interventions for people and livestock in remote rural areas. British Medical Journal BMJ 2005, No. 331, pp. 1264-1267 Download from: British Medical Journal BMJ
Brucellosis and Q-fever seroprevalences of nomadic pastoralists and their livestock in Chad
Schelling, Esther
"As a part of a research-and-action partnership between public health and veterinary medicine, the relationships between the seroprevalences of brucellosis and Q-fever in humans and livestock were evaluated in three nomadic communities of Chad (Fulani cattle breeders, and Arab camel and cattle breeders). Nomad camps were visited between April 1999 and April 2000. A total of 860 human and 1637 animal sera were tested for antibodies against Brucella spp., and 368 human and 613 animal sera for Coxiella burnetii. The same indirect ELISA was used for livestock and human sera, and the test characteristics for its use on human sera were evaluated. Twenty-eight people were seropositive for brucellosis (seroprevalence 3.8%). Brucella seroprevalence was higher in cattle (7%) than other livestock, and brucellosis seropositivity was a significant factor for abortion in cattle (OR=2.8). No correlation was found between human brucellosis serostatus and camp proportions of seropositive animals. [...]" Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2003, Vol. 61, No. 4, pp. 279-293 Available from: ScienceDirect
Livestock Diseases and Human Health
Zinsstag, Jakob
"Two decades ago, the U.S. epidemiologist Calvin Schwabe coined a phrase--"the one medicine"--to focus attention on the commonality of human and veterinary health interests.* The underlying concept is traceable to the late 19th century, in contributions of the German pathologist and architect of social medicine Rudolf Virchow. Recent events have brought the relationship between animal and human health into much sharper focus than even public health and veterinary health specialists might have predicted. [...]" >>more Science 2001, Vol. 294. no. 5542, p. 477 Available from: Science Magazine
Animal Health Research
Zinsstag, Jakob
"Today's intimate and rapid global interconnections mean that uncontrolled infectious diseases in one part of the world threaten animal and public health everywhere. The good news is that animal health sciences are technologically better equipped than ever before for detecting new disease outbreaks almost in real time. The bad news is that despite this, there is a daunting gap in converting these advances into effective actions and policies, particularly in developing countries. What can be done to remedy this lack of cohesion? [...]" >>more Science 2007, Vol. 315, No. 5816, p. 1193 Availabel from: Science Magazine