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A la recherche des déterminants institutionnels du bien-être des populations sédentaires et nomades dans la plaine du Waza-Logone de la frontière camerounaise et tchadienne
Fokou, Gilbert
"Cette contribution présente les articulations d’une étude actuellement en cours dans la région du Logone et Chari au Cameroun et dont le but est d’oeuvrer pour l’élaboration des savoirs et des connaissances pour le développement pastoral. De nombreux groupes de populations sédentaires et nomades vivent dans cette localité et dépendent des plaines inondées du Sud du lac Tchad pour leur subsistance. Or, les ressources naturelles connaissent de grandes variations saisonnières et deviennent parfois la propriété des groupes sédentaires. De ce fait, les éleveurs nomades éprouvent de nombreuses difficultés pour accéder non seulement aux pâturages et à l’eau, mais aussi aux services de santé de qualité (centres hospitaliers, médicaments efficaces). L’ambition ici est de définir de nouvelles conditions institutionnelles d’accès aux soins de santé pour les populations sédentaires et nomades. En fait, la plupart des problèmes auxquels sont confrontés les nomades de nos jours seraient dus à l’inadaptation des règles formelles en vigueur aux stratégies de survie des populations rurales. Celles mises en place à l’époque pré-coloniale ne sont plus opérationnelles. L’on pourrait conclure, sous forme d’hypothèse à vérifier, que la définition de nouveaux cadres institutionnels de gestion des ressources naturelles pourrait contribuer à l’amélioration des conditions de santé des pasteurs nomades." Médecine Tropicale 2004, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 1-5 Download
Multi-dimensional approaches to more sustainable natural resources management in highly dynamic contexts in East Africa
Kiteme, Boniface
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
Monitoring and modelling for the sustainable management of water resources in tropical mountain basins.
MacMillan, Lindsay
This paper presents a rare example of a relatively intensive, variable scale, monitoring network in tropical highland Africa. Examples of results from this monitoring are given, which reveal the importance of vegetation cover and landuse in the generation of storm flow, groundwater recharge and decline in river flows. The calibration of a hydrological model developmed for this region, together with some early results from the simulation of landuse change scenarios, are also presented. In: Bugmann H et al. Global Change and Mountain Regions: An Overview of Current Knowledge. Springer, pp. 605-616.
Trees, trust and the state: A comparison of participatory forest management in Pakistan and Tanzania
Shahbaz, Babar
This paper attempts to analyse the trust, power relations and emerging conflicts as state and non-state actors try to adjust to their new roles in the perspective of participatory forest management initiatives in Pakistan and Tanzania. Based on historical and empirical context, we argue that the institutional base responsible for enhancing trust between state and local actors is rather weak in both countries. The major obstacles are that the state actors are not willing to fully devolve power; and the responsibility - as delegated by the state - of newly created institutions demands forest protection rather than defining management rights.
Substantiation of selection of research region on sustainable water resources management on the irrigation systems of Chui Valley of Kyrgyzstan
Ivanova, Natalia
The choice of the research region on sustainable water resource management is based on history, topography, river network, water distribution, geology, and soils. Focus is put on the effects of the economic transition and the availability of data on climate and soil. Based on that six criteria were defined and used for selection leading to the conclusion that Sokuluk river is a typical one for Chuy Valley of Kyrgyzstan. Bulletin of Agrarian Science. Download
The state, resource governance, and conflict: Reflections from South Asia.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
The role of the state in modes of resource governance is increasingly becoming a source of conflict over natural resources. Based on studies of resource governance practices in South Asia, this contribution argues that conflict or collaboration in natural resource management depends upon the legitimacy of the state and its interaction and cooperation with resource users. When the state shows a controlling attitude towards managing natural resources, conflict and tension are unavoidable. On the other hand, challenges arise in resource management if the state is too weak to provide a conducive policy framework, institutional arrangements, and a facilitating environment. This article concludes that expanding the horizontal and vertical legitimacy of the state is essential to promote sustainable governance of natural resourc¬es and to resolve associated conflicts. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 299-312. Download
Sustainable Use of Natural Resources in the Sokuluk River Basin.
Mamytova, Aina Oskonbaevna
Description of a seminar including purposes, tasks, programme, methodology, and training processes of the seminar. In a second part results and conclusions from each 'day sessions' are presented. Report from the ALS-Workshop commissioned to CAMP, Bielagorka, 2-5 August 2004. Download
Origines et impacts des politiques de gestion des ressources naturelles à Madagascar
Ramamonjisoa, Bruno
"An investigation of the impact of policies of the natural resources on Madagascar uncovered a number of deficiencies. A widely recommended participative approach is reaching its limits. The impartiality of the actors involved is at stake. Illicit product networks play an important role in the redistribution of commercial income. Strategies that weaken the role of the state should be reversed." Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen 2004, Vol. 155, No. 11, pp. 467-475 Download
Ethnosciences––A step towards the integration of scientific and indigenous forms of knowledge in the management of natural resources for the future
Rist, Stephan
Integration of indigenous knowledge and ethnoscientific approaches into contemporary frameworks for conservation and sustainable management of natural resources will become increasingly important in policies on an international and national level. We set the scene on how this can be done by exploring the key conditions and dimensions of a dialogue between ‘ontologies’ and the roles, which ethnosciences could play in this process. First, the roles which ethnosciences in the context of sustainable development were analysed, placing emphasis on the implications arising when western sciences aspire to relate to indigenous forms of knowledge. Secondly, the contributions of ethnosciences to such an ‘inter-ontological dialogue’ were explored, based on an ethnoecological study of the encounter of sciences and indigenous knowledge in the Andes of Bolivia, and reviewed experiences from mangrove systems in Kenya, India and Sri Lanka, and from case-studies in other ecosystems world-wide. Environment, Development and Sustainability 8(4):467-493.
Managing water resources in dynamic settings: A multi-level, multi-stakeholder perspective.
Ngana, James
The aim of the present article is to contribute to the debate on the role of research in sustainable management of water and related resources, based on experiences in the Upper Ewaso Ng’iro and Pangani river basins in East Africa. Both basins are characterised by humid, resource-rich highlands and extensive semi-arid lowlands, by growing demand for water and related resources, and by numerous conflicting stakeholder interests. Issues of scale and level, on the one hand, and the normative dimension of sustainability, on the other hand, are identified as key challenges for research that seeks to produce relevant and applicable results for informed decision-making. A multi-level and multi-stakeholder perspective, defined on the basis of three minimal principles, is proposed here as an approach to research for informed decision-making. Key lessons learnt from applying these principles in the two river basins are presented and iscussed in the light of current debate. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 91-106. Download
Patterns of Land Cover Change in the Lower Mekong Basin
Heinimann, Andreas
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland "The present study seeks to generate a comparable information and knowledge base about land cover change on a mesoscale level for the entire Lower Mekong Basin. Such information is crucial to both informed decision making and the transboundary negotiations on the use and protection of the shared natural resources in regional bodies such as the Mekong River Commission. It may form the basis for achieving a common understanding regarding resource management in the Basin despite diverging national interests. [...]" Download Summary For further information, please contact: Andreas Heinimann
Improving Sustainable Grazing Management in Mountain Rangelands of the Hindu Kush–Himalaya
Ur-Rahim, Inam
"[...] The combined and participatory approach suggested in this paper describes how a more tangible, quantifiable relationship can be established between individual plant and community level processes. Such an approach, which involves herders in expert assessment and data collection, enables better monitoring and forecasting of those changes in plant community composition that are relevant for livestock husbandry and sustainable resource use. In this study, the highest dry matter production (DMP) was recorded at altitudes between 1200 m (with 1945 kg/ha) and 1600 m (with 1921 kg/ha). In “freely grazed rangeland”—where access is not limited and no manual improvement measures are taken—the proportion of palatable forage species is much lower than in “fenced rangeland,” where access is limited and the stocking rate reduced to one third. Such integrated assessment of rangeland conditions ultimately provides the baseline for evaluating changes in ecosystems over time; it also provides a sound basis for negotiation among stakeholders with different interests." Mountain Research and Development 2004, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 124–133 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Pastoral Conflict and Resource Management in Ethiopia's Somali Region
Hagmann, Tobias
PhD Thesis, University of Lausanne, Switzerland For further information, please contact the author
Management - Zwischen Schutz und Nutzung
Wiesmann, Urs
Welt der Alpen - Erbe der Welt: Wissenschaftler/Innen berichten über ihre Ergebnisse und Erkenntnisse aus der Alpen- und der globalen Gebirgsforschung. Es geht um die aktuelle Dynamik und Langzeitsignale, um Risikomanagement und Nachhaltigkeit, aber auch um Mythen und Lebensalltag sowie um Autonomie und Fremdbestimmung im globalen Zusammenhang. Jeder dieser vier Themenbereiche wird mit einem Einführungsartikel eingeleitet und beinhaltet zwei Beiträge aus den Alpen sowie zwei weitere entweder aus den Anden, dem Karakorum, Kaukasus, Himalaja, den Berggebieten in Ostafrika, Lesotho oder Neuseeland. Nach dem von der UNO proklamierten «Internationalen Jahr der Berge» stellt sich die Frage, was die Geographie leisten kann, um zur nachhaltigeren Entwicklung der Gebirgsräume in einer globalisierten Welt beizutragen. In: Wallner, A., Bäschlin, E., Grosjean, M., Labhart, T., Schüpbach, U., Wiesmann, U., editors. 2007. Welt der Alpen - Erbe der Welt. UNESCO Welterbe-Region Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn. Bern: Haupt, pp. 271-283 Order this publication from: Haupt
Analysis of myths and realities of deforestation in Pakistan:
Ali, Tanvir
This paper attempts to analyze myths and realities regarding deforestation in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. It presents the perceptions of forest dependent people of the province regarding the forest use patterns, condition of forests, change in forest cover, factors responsible for the forest depletion and increase of illegal cutting. The intensive use of forest wood for household needs and ineffective forest management strategies by the forest department were some of the key reasons of deforestation in the study area. Policy guidelines are suggested for improving the effectiveness of forestry extension sevices. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 8(1):107-110. Download
Common Pool Resource Management
Meroka, Patrick
PhD Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Autochthony, natural resource management and conflicting rights in West Africa.
Fokou, Gilbert
Focusing on pastoralism and access to land, this article aims to demonstrate that management institutions are eroded in a context of resource scarcity, and that certain groups build discourse and strategies on fuzzy notions of nationhood or identity in order to exclude other users. In this process, the notion of autochthony appears to be an ideological tool in the hands of native people to express their social malaise and difficulties in sustaining their livelihoods in a context of global development. The article concludes that in a context of ‘presence-absence’ of the state, negotiations between various stakeholders at different levels could foster sustainable development. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 61-76. Download
The Urgency of (Not Necessarily) Policy-Oriented Research
Geiser, Urs
In: SDPI [Sustainable Development Policy Institute Islamabad], editor. 2005. Sustainable Development. Bridging the Research / Policy Gaps in Southern Contexts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Vol.I: Environment, pp. 67-76 Order book from: Oxford University Press
Institutional Frameworks for NRM and Access to Basic Services in the Sahel
Bonfoh, Bassirou
Poster presented at the International Conference on Research for Development (ICRD). 2-4 July 2008, Berne, Switzerland. Download