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Nepal Migration Year Book 2011
Ghimire Bhattarai, Anita
The general objective of Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 is to provide factual, comprehensive and non-partisan data and analysis of the developments and trends of migration to, within, and from Nepal, and to put this into context. This volume covers the period of January-December 2011. More specific objectives are: - To review the general status and trends of migration for the stated period; - To account for national laws, regulations, plans and programs on migration; - To review efforts by both public and private sector to protect the migrants. Download book
Strengthening policies and institutions to support adaptation to climate variabiliy and change in the drylands of East Africa
Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe
We analysed how policies in Tanzania and Kenya address the strategies of agro-pastoralists for coping with and adapting to climate variability and climate change, based on data from semi-structured household surveys, group discussions, policy documents and other material. Many policies indirectly address climate variability and change by focusing on drought, suggesting that some form of mainstreaming already exists. We show that by integrating the perspective of agro-pastoralists, i.e. the majority of the rural poor, policies and pro-poor adaptation strategies can be strengthened. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the NCCR North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 107-130. Download
Migration, poverty, security and social networks: A Central American perspective.
Morales, A, Morales, A
This article provides a critical introduction to understanding the migration–poverty relationship from a different perspective, i.e. by focusing on the migration–livelihoods nexus from the point of view of social structures and people’s living conditions. The discussion presented here is based on analysis of different analytical approaches to migration in Central America and the Caribbean, developed within the framework of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR), an international research programme focusing on mitigating syndromes of global change. The present appraisal provides a broader explanation of the scope of relationships in the development of social life reproduction strategies, envisaging migration as an answer to problems of inequality and as a resource for poverty alleviation strategies, from a Central American perspective. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 417-433. Download
The state, resource governance, and conflict: Reflections from South Asia.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
The role of the state in modes of resource governance is increasingly becoming a source of conflict over natural resources. Based on studies of resource governance practices in South Asia, this contribution argues that conflict or collaboration in natural resource management depends upon the legitimacy of the state and its interaction and cooperation with resource users. When the state shows a controlling attitude towards managing natural resources, conflict and tension are unavoidable. On the other hand, challenges arise in resource management if the state is too weak to provide a conducive policy framework, institutional arrangements, and a facilitating environment. This article concludes that expanding the horizontal and vertical legitimacy of the state is essential to promote sustainable governance of natural resourc¬es and to resolve associated conflicts. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 299-312. Download
Patterns and politics of migration in South Asia
Barbora, Sanjay
Migration is an important social and historical reality in South Asia. In the past decade, migration from one country to another and internal migration (i.e. migration within a particular country) have assumed different dimensions for people in the region. Contemporary research on migration is placed in a spectrum that ranges from exponents of economic benefits at one end, to those who see migration as a security threat, at the other. This paper combines the work of three researchers and looks at the different political locations from which the South Asian subject is induced to move. It also discusses the economic and political implications that arise from these migration trajectories. Drawing on their research, the authors emphasise the need for understanding how migration is linked to a complex set of processes that reflect power relations in unequal societies. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 313-328. Download
Access to livlihood assets: Insights from South Asia on how institutions work
Shahbaz, Babar
The present contribution is an attempt to understand the conditions that impede some households and social groups in securing a decent livelihood by drawing on ‘purported’ facilitating institutions. It is generally agreed that access to livelihood assets is negotiated through institutions. However, the way in which these institutions operate in everyday practice and in specific contexts is less well understood. The four case studies presented here therefore analyse how customary norms and state regulations work. The article argues that a deeper understanding of the working of institutions, which in turn influence who is excluded from and who is entitled to access a particular livelihood asset, also provides a bridge to evidence-based development support. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 283-297. Download
Interrelationship between conflict and federalism in Nepal [in Nepali]
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In Nepali Human Rights Monitor 5(12): 5-12. Download
Livelihood strategies of internally displaced people in Western Nepal: Some observations
Ghimire Bhattarai, Anita
The livelihood strategies of internally displaced people are affected by the various factors and the new contexts that they encounter in the host communities. This topic has also been of great interest in the broader framework of migration studies. Taking the case of the Rajhena Camp in the Western Terai, Nepal, this Chapter examines the livelihood strategies of conflict-induced internally displaced persons using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (DFID 2002) and the Rural Livelihood System (Baumgartner 2006) as analytical tools. This Chapter attempts to understand how the circumstances endured by internally displaced persons affect their capacity to build assets or capitalise on available assets and, thus, shape their livelihood strategies. This chapter also discusses the relevance of livelihoods frameworks in studying the livelihood strategies of special categories of people. In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: South Asia Coordination Office, pp 217-256. Download
Livelihood Options of Internally Displaced Girls in Kathmandu and Nepalgunj: Analyzing Risks and Vulnerabilities
Piya, Sulava
The present qualitative study focuses on the livelihood strategies of young displaced girls in two urban centers of Nepal, Kathmandu and Nepalgunj. The study attempted to highlight the livelihood options and strategies of those girls who had been forcefully displaced to urban centers. The attempt was also made to analyze the livelihoods of the girls with the use of two renowned frameworks - DFID's Sustainable Livelihood Framework and Rural Livelihood Strategies. Abstract of Master Thesis at Kathmandu University. Download
Livelihoods Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In this book, the basic causes of livelihood insecurity and social tension and conflict in Nepal are documented and analysed and possible ways of addressing these challenges envisioned. We do not claim that this book gives a comprehensive framework for addressing all the challenge this country is facing, but we firmly believe that it will contribute to a deeper understanding of the livelihood complexity of poor people and elucidate potential ways to enhance their livelihood security and contribute to solving social conflict in Nepal. Download
Addressing livelihood insecurity and the need for further research
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
The livelihoods of people in conflict-ridden countries like Nepal are threatened by various conventional and non-conventional factors. The decade long conflict and the ongoing peace process have altered the livelihood options in Nepal, creating new options while constraining others. This Chapter highlights the need for a proper understanding of livelihoods in Nepal in the current transitional context to develop a response strategy to address livelihood insecurity and to capitalize on the opportunities brought about by the political changes in the country. It also suggests some areas for further research and analysis. In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: South Asia Coordination Office, pp 257-271. Download
Interlinkages between Internal and International Migration: A Case Study of Migrants from Bajhang in Dhangadhi, Far West Nepal
Poertner, Ephraim
In Nepal, poverty, unemployment, demographic developments and political turmoil during the Maoist insurgency have fuelled out-migration to foreign countries as well as internal migration in the recent past. Both internal and international migration phenomena are little researched components of the demographic dynamics in Nepal, despite their relevance for the country’s socio-economic and political development. The interlinkages between the two types of migration are even less understood, although it is assumed that they often influence one another. Evidence from research on migration in Nepal has revealed that internal migration can lead to international migration and vice versa. This study focuses therefore on such interlinkages between international and internal migration and aims at unveiling how internal migration and labour migration to India are interlinked in the case of a migrant community in the urban Terai. Abstract of Master Thesis at University of Zurich. Download
Indigenous knowledge related to climate variability and change: insights from droughts in semi-arid areas of former Makueni District, Kenya.
Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe
This article describes the indigenous knowledge (IK) that agro pastoralists in larger Makueni District, Kenya hold and how they use it to monitor, mitigate and adapt to drought. It examines ways of integrating IK into formal monitoring, how to enhance its value and acceptability. Data was collected through target interviews, group discussions and questionnaires covering 127 households in eight villages. Daily rainfall data from 1961–2003 were analysed. Results show that agro-pastoralists hold IK on indicators of rainfall variability; they believe in IK efficacy and they rely on them. Because agro-pastoralists consult additional sources, the authors interpret that IK forms a basic knowledge frame within which agro-pastoralists position and interpret meteorological forecasts. [...] Climatic Change. doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9713-0 Download
Chapter 1: Introduction
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
This book looks at livelihood insecurity and social tension in Nepalese society. Conceptual links between livelihood insecurity, social tension and conflict in Nepal have seldom been made. Therefore, we examine this relationship from different perspectives. Nepalese experts, campaigners, academic and non-academic scholars engaged in the fields of public policy analysis, food rights and globalisation, livelihoods, conflict transformation and social change were invited to contribute their views and analysis. Their contributions provide the reader with a wide range of perspectives on livelihood insecurity and social conflict. Another aim of the book is to test the explanatory power of the livelihood approaches and to enrich the livelihood perspective by constructive and evidence-based criticism. In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: RCO South Asia, NCCR North-South, pp 1-7. Download
Nepal Migration Year Book 2010
Ghimire Bhattarai, Anita
The South Asia office of the NCCR North-South and the Nepal Institute of Development Studies have published The Nepal Migration Year Book 2010. The book provides data on various aspects of migration such as the different forms of migration, the number of migrants, and their remittances. Download book (PDF 3MB)
Livelihood Assets Atlas: Mountainous Districts of NWFP (Pakistan)
Suleri, Abid Qaiyum
For poverty reduction interventions to be effective, it is important to understand the multiple livelihood assets, livelihood activities and multiple sources of vulnerability faced by the poor. In addition to recognizing these activities, using livelihood approaches requires an attempt to understand the processes that underlie poverty, and the social, cultural, political, and institutional contexts in which poor people live. Although the individual, household, and community are the primary levels of analysis, livelihood approaches seek out the relevant interactions at micro, meso, and macro levels. In this backdrop, the main objective of this “Livelihood Assets Atlas” is to provide a comparative depiction of the indicators of livelihood assets which are assumed as poverty reducing factors. Download
A decade of armed conflict and livelihood insecurity in Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
This chapter looks at the different sources of the decade-long armed conflict in Nepal and their interrelationship with livelihood insecurity. The complexity and interwovenness of the different causes is highlighted and their collective impact on the livelihoods of the poor and marginalised people examined. In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: South Asia Coordination Office, pp 9-47. Download
Climate Change and Floods: Vulnerability Analysis of People towards Disaster
Maharjan, Kiran
Although flood disasters devastate livelihoods annually, especially in the monsoon, diminution in havocs in the low lying areas of developing countries like Nepal does not seem to take place. As impacts of climate change are being felt in many parts of the world recently, the current study tries to analyze the biophysical as well as socio-economic vulnerability of people towards climate change and floods, clarifying the relationship between these two phenomena. Abstract of Master Thesis at Kathmandu University. Download
Livelihoods, institutions and migration in South Asia
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp 273-282. Download
Autochthony, natural resource management and conflicting rights in West Africa.
Fokou, Gilbert
Focusing on pastoralism and access to land, this article aims to demonstrate that management institutions are eroded in a context of resource scarcity, and that certain groups build discourse and strategies on fuzzy notions of nationhood or identity in order to exclude other users. In this process, the notion of autochthony appears to be an ideological tool in the hands of native people to express their social malaise and difficulties in sustaining their livelihoods in a context of global development. The article concludes that in a context of ‘presence-absence’ of the state, negotiations between various stakeholders at different levels could foster sustainable development. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 61-76. Download
Food Insecurity, conflict and livelihood threats in Nepal
Adhikari , Jaganath
This chapter examines the food security situation in Nepal and the impact of the recent armed conflict on the food security situation. It argues that food security is understood in different ways and that definitions have changed over time, as these definitions are influenced by different factors – both subjective and objective, and domestic and international. Based on the analysis, some recommendations are made as to how to improve the food security situation in times of conflict, during normal times and in the context of globalisation. In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: South Asia Coordination Office, pp 73-130. Download
Social networks and migration: Women's livelihoods between Far West Nepal and Delhi
Thieme, Susan
Although migration from Nepal has increasingly been the subject of research since the 1990s, there are very few publications about gender and migration in Nepal. We want to contribute to fill this research gap by presenting a case study of women’s livelihoods in the context of labour migration, both as migrants themselves and as women who remain in the villages. The migrants originate from Bajura district of the Far Western Development Region, where migration to India has been a common occurrence for several generations and the economy can be described as “agri-migratory” (Bruslé 2008: 241). The analysis sheds light on women’s individual aspirations as well as their position within their families and communities. It also explores how kinship networks and social capital shape women’s lives and whether migration facilitates social change. In: European Bulletin of Himalayan Research 35-36: 107-121. Download
The Remake of a State: Post Conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
State building is a highly debated topic these days, whether referring to war-torn Iraq, conflict-ridden Afghanistan, or any number of other countries facing or recovering from acute instability. Questions of physical reconstruction and socio-economic transformation are especially crucial. The issue of state building has recently gained in importance in South Asia, particularly in the aftermath of conflicts in Sri Lanka and Nepal. The Remake of a State presents expert analysis, conceptual frameworks, and case studies relevant to sustainable state building in Nepal. Download book (3 MB)
Temporal and Spatial Changes in the Incidence of Agricultural Labourers: A Study in Maharashtra State, India
Kumar, Awanish
The present thesis is an attempt to analyse temporal and spatial changes in the incidence of agricultural wage labour in the state of Maharashtra. It aims, primarily, at analyzing changes in the size of the labour force in agriculture and the distribution of these changes across castes and gender. Conclusions of Master Thesis at Tata Institute of Social Sciences. Download