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Ohne Sauberkeit keine Gesundheit. Hygiene im Alltag von Dar es Salaam, Tansania
Obrist, Brigit
«Gesundheit» ist ein Zauberwort der Moderne. Es ist ein positives Konzept, das wir mit vielen Bereichen des alltäglichen Lebens in Beziehung setzen, von Umwelt über Ernährung bis hin zu Arbeit , Freizeit und sozialen Beziehungen. Was bedeutet «Gesundheit» jedoch für Menschen, die in einer ganz anderen Umgebung leben, nämlich einer schnell wachsenden afrikanischen Stadt? Tsantsa 2002, 7: 66-76 Download
Human and Animal Health in Nomadic Pastoralist Communities of Chad
Schelling, Esther
PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Switzerland The health of nomadic pastoralists is influenced by factors specific to their way of life. Veterinary services provide vaccination against feared livestock diseases such as anthrax. Agents transmissible between livestock and humans (zoonotic agents) may have an important impact on the health status of pastoralists because they live in close contact to their animals. However, morbidity of nomadic pastoralists in Chad had not been documented and their everyday use of health services was virtually unknown. A research collaboration between veterinary and public health was implemented to evaluate morbidity of nomadic pastoralists and of their animals simultaneously and to test intersectoral pilot-interventions following the concept of “one medicine”.
Struggling for Health in the City
Obrist, Brigit
Bern, Peter Lang Publishing Group
Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia
Knobel, Darryn L.
Rabies remains an important yet neglected disease in Africa and Asia. Disparities in the affordability and accessibility of post-exposure treatment and risks of exposure to rabid dogs result in a skewed distribution of the disease burden across society, with the major impact falling on those living in poor rural communities, in particular children. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2005, Vol. 83, Number 5, pp. 321-400 Download from: The World Health Organisation
Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment of Organic Waste Management Practices in a Peri-urban Community
Swar, Aung Kyaw
Master's Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand This study attempted to determine the health risks from the organic waste management practices in Tha Klong municipality, Pathumthani province, Thailand. Download
Répartition de la morbidité dans trois communautés nomades du Chari- Baguirmi et du Kanem, Tchad
Daugla, Doumagoum Moto
Within the framework of an multidisciplinary research and action program, morbidity patterns were assessed in three nomadic communities in Chad. A total of 1092 women, men and children were interviewed and examined in the course of three surveys carried out by a physician during the dry and rainy season. Nomads reporting no health problems were rare. Tuberculosis was suspected in 4,6 % of adults after clinical examination and bronchopulmonary disorders in children less than five years of age. Febrile diarrhea was more prevalent during the wet season when access to clean drinking water was more difficult. Simple malaria was rarely diagnosed in Arabs during the dry season. In contrast simple malaria was frequent in Fulani who stay in the vicinity of Lake Chad during the dry period. Protein-energy malnutrition was observed in only 3 of 328 children younger than 15 years of age. Médecine Tropicale 2004, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 469-473 Download
Gobernanza en salud
Hufty, Marc
Governance in health: a conceptual and analytical approach to research "In the Latin American region there is a notable absence of conceptual coherency in the use of the terms governability and governance. This is true for their application to both the social and political sciences and health. Researchers’ understanding of governance varies, and the concept is used heterogeneously within academic circles, with ignorance of the term on the part of decisionmakers and great confusion and ambiguity in the meanings used by researchers and decisionmakers in the health sector. Instead of the prevailing normative use, promoted by most international agencies, a conceptual and analytical framework for governance is proposed here for health systems and services research. Advances in the design of this framework were used to evaluate the public health insurance program in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which allowed the use of the analytical framework to be assessed as a tool for systemizing the social, political, and institutional complexity of the health policy formulation and implementation processes." Cadernos de Saúde Pública / Reports in Public Health 2006, Vol. 22, Sup: S35-S45 Download from: Scielo Brasil
Assessing health impacts of the Chad–Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project
Utzinger, Jürg
"Health impact assessment (HIA) of projects, programmes and policies is increasingly recognized as a powerful methodology for mitigating negative health impacts and enhancing equitable and sustainable development, yet applications in the developing world are sparse. Here, we focus on a large infrastructure development in sub-Saharan Africa, namely the Chad–Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project. We adapted a five-step process for HIA, consisting of (1) screening of project documents, (2) profiling of affected communities, (3) identifying priority health areas, predicting potential impacts, and proposing mitigation measures, (4) implementing interventions, and (5) monitoring and evaluation of health impacts. [...]" Environmental Impact Assessment Review 2004, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 63-93 Available from: ScienceDirect
Health risks related to wastewater reuse in Thailand using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA)
Ferrer Duch, Aleix
In the context of the Work Package 3 (Health and Environmental sanitation)within the NCCR North-South, a conceptual framework has been developed using an approach combining health, ecological, socio-economic and cultural assessments. Master's Thesis at University of Basel Download
Definition of environmental sanitation system for Hatsady Tai
Maniseng, D
A description of steps 5 and 6 in the HCES planning approach conducted in Laos Download
UESS Assessment Report
Maniseng, D
Project report on outcomes of the HCES project step 3 in Hatdady Tai. Vientiane, Lao PDR. Download
La vulnérabilité des citadins à Abidjan en relation avec le palu. Les risques environnementaux et la commoditization agissant à travers le palu sur la vulnérabilité urbaine
Granado, Stefanie
The article aims to better understand the relation between urban vulnerability, environmental risks, and commoditization in regard to palu in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire). This research in medical anthropology analyses the local illness palu (abbreviation of the paludisme, e.g. malaria), a bodily experience of non-specific symptoms. Environmental risks are closely linked to palu. They are locally understood as a cause of palu, which, as the illness becomes a concrete bodily experience, offer a possibility of acting upon and addressing these risks. The patient does have the possibility of treating its palu with remedies. Therefore, commoditization of drugs not only represents a source of vulnerability but also offers a possibility to face persisting environmental risks. Vulnerability and its attached meanings are a dynamic concept. Unfortunately, commoditization of drugs implies high risks of over- or mistreatment. In French VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement hors série 3 Download
"En ville, chacun est dans son chacun"
Bossart, Rita
PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
Combining photochemical and biological processes for the treatment of potential Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC) in water
Kenfack, Simeon
PhD Thesis, EIER, Burkina Faso For further information, please contact the author
Exclusion, vulnerability, poverty and AIDS
Kablan, Cléopâtre
PhD Thesis, Université de Cocody, Côte d'Ivoire For further information please contact the author
In the shadow of the tents
Münch, Anna
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
Material Flow Analysis in the Tha Chin River Basin, Thailand
Schaffner, Monika
The Material Flow Analysis (MFA) model provides an overview of the main nutrient flows in the Tha Chin River Basin, Central Thailand. Instead of extensive measuring campaigns, local data is integrated into the model to quantify these flows and find suitable remediation measures. Download (1 MB)
Finding the answers to Chad’s health workforce crisis
Wyss, Kaspar
Massive shortages of qualified health workers are recognised by the Chad authorities to be a primary "bottleneck" for the development of the health sector. This paper shortly reviews policies implemented which prioritise human resource development and concludes that more choherent policies are needed, particularly to improve motivation and retention. id21 insights health # 7: Responding to the health workforce crisis. Download
Improvement of Urban Environmental Sanitation Services (UESS) in Ban Hatsady Tai, Vientiane City, Lao PDR
Thammanosouth, Saykham
The paper aims at introducing the HCES planning approach and its underpinning principles, and illustrates the strengths and limitations of its application in Ban Hatsady Tai. Download
Santé et vulnérabilité des populations défavorisées de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Etudes de cas en Côte d'Ivoire, Mauritanie et au Tchad.
Wyss, Kaspar
Les articles dans cet ouvrage collectif sont regroupés autour de trois piliers de la notion vulnérabilité : (1) la monnayabilité/marchandisation (anglais «commoditization»), (2) les risques environnementaux («environmental hazards»), et (3) fragmentation sociale. À la suite de la présentation du cadre conceptuel emprunté par l’équipe de recherche, chacune des notions est reprise par une série d’articles. Enfin, le dernier chapitre établit une synthèse des différents chapitres précédents tout en élargissant la notion de vulnérabilité et son lien avec la santé urbaine. VertigO - la revue canadienne et électronique en sciences de l'environnement hors série 3: 1-2. Download
Owner valuation of rabies vaccination of dogs, Chad
Dürr, Salome
Emerg Infect Dis 14:1650-1652. Download
Access to Health Care among Transhumant Fulani Pastoralists in Mauritania: Using the Health Access Livelihood Approach
Corradi, Corinne
The focus of this study was set on pastoralist's livelihood capitals as well as qualitative dimensions of access. Available resources were identified and impeding factors when mobilising those were described. The financial means for health care were found to be limited by pastoralists themselves, despite the possession of cattle and a milk selling contract to a dairy plant. Further, insufficient and unreliable transport possibilities, as well as certain shortcomings in the quality of health services were pointed out by pastoralists. Mutual understanding and communication between Fulani pastoralist and health care personnel was also found to be insufficient and impeding for accessing health care. Limited access was also related to economic structures on the market, social norms within Fulani society and individual strategies, depending for example on pulaaku, the Fulani code of conduct. The lack of infrastructure and medical supplies further did not contribute to the utilisation of health services, either. Master's Thesis at University of Zurich Download
Improving environmental sanitation, health and well-being - a conceptual framework for integral interventions.
Nguyen-Viet, Hung
We introduce a conceptual framework for improving health and environmental sanitation in urban and peri-urban areas using an approach combining health, ecological, socio-economic and cultural assessments. Available from: EcoHealth. DOI 10.1007/s10393-009-0249-6
Compendium des Systèmes et Technologies d’Assainissement
Tilley, Elizabeth
Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies In French. Download
Innovative tools for environmental sanitation planning and river basin management
Montangero, Agnes
In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 343–356. Download
Towards a "one health" research and application tool box
Zinsstag, Jakob
Veterinaria Italiana 45(1): 119-131 Download
Effect of repeated application of microbial larvicides on malaria transmission in central Côte d'Ivoire
Tchicaya, Emile S
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 25(3):382-385. Download
Material flow analysis as a tool for environmental sanitation planning.
Montangero, Agnes
This paper illustrates how the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) can be applied to assess measures aiming at optimizing nitrogen recovery through improved excreta management in Viet Tri, Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the application of MFA could be rendered more affordable for planners and decision-makers in developing countries confronted with poor data availability and quality. SANDEC News 6 Download
From conventional to advanced environmental sanitation
Schertenleib, Roland
"The basic concept of collecting domestic liquid waste in water-borne sewer systems goes back more than 100 years and became in the last century the conventional approach to sanitation in urban areas. Over the years, these sewage disposal systems had to be successively upgraded by additional sewage treatment plants increasing investment, operating and maintenance costs. Although these conventional sanitation systems could improve significantly the public health situation in those countries who could afford to install and operate them, it is highly questionable, if they are economically and ecologically sustainable. The large number of people in the developing world who still do not have access to adequate sanitation is a clear indication that the conventional approach to sanitation is not adapted to the socio-economic condition prevailing in most countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Advanced environmental sanitation is aiming not only to protect public health and the integrity of aquatic ecosystems but also to conserve precious freshwater and non-renewable resources. The Bellagio Principles and the Household Centred Environmental Sanitation Approach (HCES) are suggested as guiding principles and a new approach for planing and designing advanced (sustainable) environmental sanitation systems." Water Science & Technology 2005, Vol. 51, No. 10, pp. 7–14 Available from: IWA Publishing Online
The Impact of Demand Factors, Quality of Care and Access to Facilities on Contraceptive Use in Tanzania
Arends-Kuenning, Mary
The low contraceptive prevalence rate and the existence of unmet demand for family planning services present a challenge for parties involved in family planning research in Tanzania. The observed situation has been explained by the demand-side variables such as socioeconomic characteristics and cultural values that maintain the demand for large families. A small, but growing body of research is examining the effect of supply-side factors such as quality of care of family planning services on the demand for contraceptives. This paper analyses the demand and supply factors determining contraceptive use in Tanzania using the Tanzania Service Availability Survey (1996) and the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (1996) data sets. The results show that access to family planning services and quality of care of services are important determinants of contraceptive use in Tanzania even after controlling for demand-side factors. Journal of Biosocial Science 2007, Vol. 39, Issue 1, pp. 1-26 Available from: Cambridge University Press
Taux sérique de rétinol chez les femmes nomades pastoralistes tchadiennes en relation avec la teneur en rétinol et en carotène dans le lait de leur bétail
Zinsstag, Jakob
"Human serum retinol and livestock milk retinol levels were assessed as part of a study on the health status of Chadian nomadic pastoralists and their livestock in close partnership between Chadian public health and livestock institutions. Of the examined women (n = 99), 43% (95% CI 33 – 54 %) were retinol deficient (levels from 0.35 ?mol/L to 0.7 ?mol/L) and 17% (95% CI 10 - 26 %) severely deficient (Médecine Tropicale 2004, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 478-481 Download
Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis
Roth, F.
"Objective: To estimate the economic benefit, cost-effectiveness, and distribution of benefit of improving human health in Mongolia through the control of brucellosis by mass vaccination of livestock. [...] Findings: In a scenario of 52% reduction of brucellosis transmission between animals achieved by mass vaccination, a total of 49 027 DALYs could be averted. Estimated intervention costs were US$ 8.3 million, and the overall benefit was US$ 26.6 million. This results in a net present value of US$ 18.3 million and an average benefit–cost ratio for society of 3.2 (2.27–4.37). If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 11%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of US$ 19.1 per DALY averted (95% confidence interval 5.3–486.8). If private economic gain because of improved human health was included, the health sector should contribute 42% to the intervention costs and the costeffectiveness would decrease to US$ 71.4 per DALY averted. Conclusion: If the costs of vaccination of livestock against brucellosis were allocated to all sectors in proportion to the benefits, the intervention might be profitable and cost effective for the agricultural and health sectors." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003, Vol. 81, Number 12, pp. 867-876 Download PDF from: The World Health Organization
Health anthropology and urban health research
Obrist, Brigit
"We live in a rapidly urbanising world. According to the 2001 statistics of the United Nations, the proportion of urban dwellers rose from 30% in 1950 to 47% in 2000 and will probably attain 60% in 2030. Almost 70% of these urban dwellers live in cities of developing regions. At the current rates of urbanisation, the number of city dwellers in the world will equal that of their rural counterparts by 2007. In the late 1980s, researchers became increasingly concerned about the combined impact of rapid urban growth and economic recession on the health of a majority of people in African and Asian cities. Several books established urban health research with a focus on developing countries as a multidisciplinary field of inquiry (Harpham et al., 1988; Salem & Jeannée, 1989). It is now widely recognised that urbanisation per se is not necessarily bad for health, but it becomes so if urban governments fail to establish and support necessary infrastructure and services to protect citizens from environmental hazards and from social, economic and political insecurity." Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 267-274 Available from: informaworld
Engaging anthropology in urban health research
Obrist, Brigit
"Urbanisation remains a challenge in the new millennium and will continue to have important implications for human health. This leads to lively debates in the field of international health, but with minimal engagement of anthropology. To stimulate active involvement, our paper highlights main issues addressed in this special issue and maps directions for future research. Our collection of papers addresses hot topics in urban health research, ranging from everyday health practice to mental health, chronic and degenerative illness, old age and social safety networks, and examines them from a complementary, anthropological perspective. Most priority concerns refer to four core issues commonly considered as characteris tics of urban life, namely, levels of environmental hazards, commodification, social fragmen tation and health service provision. We thus advocate for fresh perspectives, moving from a medical anthropology to a health anthropology, and from risk approaches to frameworks centring on affliction, vulnerability and resilience. Future research should concentrate on comparisons and longitudinal design to sharpen key distinctions, e.g. between rural, peri-urban and urban, use dynamics, diversity and complexity as analytical frameworks and investigate emerging issues like trust and care. With an active engagement in and commitment to urban health research, anthropology can enhance conceptual clarity and contribute to locally relevant public health actions." Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 361-371 Available from: informaworld
Urban health in daily practice
Obrist, Brigit
"Health is the core value and ultimate goal of health development, yet we know very little about health conceptions in everyday life. Inspired by investigations into lay health concepts in Europe, our study explores experiences and meanings of health in a strikingly different context, namely, in a low-income neighbourhood of an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, we introduce the concept of 'health practice' and examine health definitions, explanations, and activities of urban Swahili women. Our findings show that representations of health form a set of experiences, meanings and embodied practice centring on the links between body, mind, and living conditions. We suggest that 'livelihood', 'vulnerability' and 'resilience' best capture women's main concerns of health practice in such a setting. All women face an emotional burden of being exposed to urban afflictions and an intellectual and practical burden of overcoming them, but some meet this challenge more successfully than others do. This approach tips the balance towards a positive view of health that has been neglected in medical anthropology. It also opens new lines of inquiry in urban health research by consequently following a resource orientation that acknowledges women's struggle to stay healthy and directs attention to their agency." Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 275-290 Available from: informaworld
Livestock Diseases and Human Health
Zinsstag, Jakob
"Two decades ago, the U.S. epidemiologist Calvin Schwabe coined a phrase--"the one medicine"--to focus attention on the commonality of human and veterinary health interests.* The underlying concept is traceable to the late 19th century, in contributions of the German pathologist and architect of social medicine Rudolf Virchow. Recent events have brought the relationship between animal and human health into much sharper focus than even public health and veterinary health specialists might have predicted. [...]" >>more Science 2001, Vol. 294. no. 5542, p. 477 Available from: Science Magazine
Africa’s development and its challenges in the health sector: medical, social and cultural dimensions
Cissé, Guéladio
In: Thomas Bearth, Barbara Becker, Rolf Kappel, Gesine Krüger, Roger Pfister, editors. 2007. Afrika im Wandel. vdf Hochschulverlag AG, ETH Zürich. Order from: vdf Hochschulverlag AG
Molecular characterisation of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir in Mali
Müller, B
Two groups of M. bovis were detected in cattle slaughtered at the Bamako abattoir. The spoligotype pattern of the first group has similarities to strains previously observed in Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria. The additional absence of spacer 6 in the majority of these strains suggests a Mali specific clone. The spoligotype patterns of the remaining strains suggest that they may have been of European origin. BMC Veterinary Research 4:26. Download
The Tajik Pamirs: The search for new education and health systems
Breu, Thomas
The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development. In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 47-48. Download
Morbidity and nutrition patterns of three nomadic pastoralist communities of Chad
Schelling, Esther
"As a part of an interdisciplinary research and action programme, morbidity and nutritional patterns were assessed in three nomadic communities: Fulani and Arab cattle breeders and Arab camel breeders, of two prefectures in Chad. The predominant morbidity pattern of Chadian nomadic pastoralists (representing approximately 10% of the total population of the country) had not been documented so far. A total of 1092 women, men and children was examined by a physician and interviewed during two surveys in the dry season and one in the wet season (1999–2000). Participants with no complaint were rare. Pulmonary disorders (e.g. bronchitis) were most often diagnosed for children under 5 years of age. Of the adult participants, 4.6% were suspected of tuberculosis. Febrile diarrhoea occurred more often during the wet season when access to clean drinking water was precarious. Malaria was only rarely clinically diagnosed among Arabs during the dry season, whereas Fulani, who stayed in the vicinity of Lake Chad, were also affected during this period. A 24-h dietary recall showed that less Arab women than men consumed milk during the dry season (66% versus 92%). [...]" Acta Tropica 2005, Volume 95, Issue 1, pp. 16-25 Available from: ScienceDirect
Seroprevalence of Q-fever in febrile individuals in Mali
Steinmann, P.
Tropical Medecine and International Health 10(6):612-617. In: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Comparative Health Impact Assessments on Faecal Sludge Management Practices: A Case Study of Klong Luang Municipality, Thailand
Yajima, A., Yajima, A.
Tha Klong sub district with indiscriminate FS dumping and Klong Luang municipality were selected. In order to determine health risks due to faecal management practices , the quantitiative Microbial risk Assessment (QMRA) was conducted by using microbial data of E.Coli and Salmonella spp. The result shows that estimated mean values of yearly infection risks from accidental ingestion of canal water in various scanario were higher than acceptable risk defined by WHO. Download
Interconnected Slums: Water, Sanitation and Health in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
Obrist, Brigit
Current debates about slums centre on the growing inequality brought about by economic globalisation. Within this context, slums are typically viewed as bounded units within the city emphasising differentiation with other neighbourhoods. This paper questions whether a focus exclusively on slums is useful for the examination of the provision of water, sanitation and health in African cities and suggests a complementary perspective emphasising urban interconnectedness. Using a comparative case study approach, it examines responses to environmental conditions in urban as well as rural contexts along drainage channels in Abidjan, West Africa. The paper traces linkages on various and partly interrelated analytical levels: spatial, material, social, political, local, national and international. Such an analysis of multi-level dynamics between stakeholders contributes to a better understanding of slums as a phenomenon of urbanisation. The European Journal of Development Research 2006, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp 319-336 Download
Urban agriculture and operational mosquito larvae control: mitigating malaria risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Dongus, Stefan
This study describes how simple participatory mapping, GIS and remote sensing applications can enable successful urban malaria control. Dongus S. 2009. Urban agriculture and operational mosquito larvae control: mitigating malaria risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PhD thesis. University of Basel. Download
Le réseau social des maraîchers à Abidjan agit sur la perception des préoccupations et des risques sanitaires liés à l’eau
Matthys, Barbara
"L'objectif de la présente étude conduite dans des zones de production maraîchère d'Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, était d'analyser les problèmes principaux des cultivateurs; leur perceptions des maladies et des risques sanitaires et la corrélation entre les risques sanitaires et le statut socio-économique des ménages ainsi que la cohésion sociale dans les communautés maraîchères. Les problèmes principaux sont l'insécurité foncière et de difficultés de commercialisation. Les préoccupations sanitaires sont la fatigue et l'insalubrité. En l'absence d'une éducation sanitaire fondée et des interventions localement adaptées, les cultivateurs n'accordent pas une attention particulière à la prévention des risques sanitaires. Le support technique, en concordance avec l'éducation et la communication de la prévention des risques sanitaires, promettent une augmentation de la productivité et une amélioration des moyens de subsistance des ménages cultivateurs à Abidjan." VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement 2006, hors série 3, Article 8 Download PDF from: VertigO
Animal Health Research
Zinsstag, Jakob
"Today's intimate and rapid global interconnections mean that uncontrolled infectious diseases in one part of the world threaten animal and public health everywhere. The good news is that animal health sciences are technologically better equipped than ever before for detecting new disease outbreaks almost in real time. The bad news is that despite this, there is a daunting gap in converting these advances into effective actions and policies, particularly in developing countries. What can be done to remedy this lack of cohesion? [...]" >>more Science 2007, Vol. 315, No. 5816, p. 1193 Availabel from: Science Magazine
The moment of sale: treating malaria in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire
Granado, Stefanie
Anthropology & Medicine 16(3):319-331. Download
An Integrated Approach to Environmental Sanitation and Urban Agriculture
Schertenleib, Roland
"Environmental sanitation comprises disposal and treatment of human excreta, solid waste and wastewater, control of disease vectors, and provision of washing facilities for personal and domestic hygiene. The conventional approach to environmental sanitation is characterised by a linear waste management system, where valuable plant nutrients are often not only wasted, but also create pollution problems in receiving waters. Closing the nutrient loop is one of the main objectives of a more ecological approach to environmental sanitation. Reuse of wastewater and organic waste in urban agriculture may contribute to closing this nutrient loop. In addition to food security and income generation, urban agricultural activities can thus help to improve public health and resource management. However, some urban agricultural processes, such as “agricultural practices”, “soil quality management” and “irrigation”, still requires further research." ISHS Acta Horticulturae 2004, No. 643: International Conference on Urban Horticulture Available from: ISHS Acta Horticulturae
Gesundheit und Gesundbleiben durch Partnerschaft
Obrist, Brigit
Strengthening capacity for health research in Africa
Whitworth, James A. G.
Lancet 372:1590-1593 Download
Global burden of human brucellosis: A systematic review of disease frequency
Dean, AS
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6(10):e1865.
Le désert existe aussi dans la ville
Ould Taleb, Moustapha
"Ce travail porte sur la perception des déterminants de la vulnérabilité à la maladie et la gestion des problèmes de santé qui surviennent dans les ménages au niveau des populations d'origine nomade en milieu urbain défavorisé à Nouakchott. La méthodologie utilisée est qualitative basée sur des entretiens approfondis et l'observation participante. La perception de la santé est largement rapportée à la mauvaise qualité de l'habitat et au manque de moyens financiers pour l'accès aux services de santé. Les maladies les plus citées sont le paludisme, les problèmes gastriques et les maladies pédiatriques. Les épisodes de maladie sont gérés grâce à l'appui du réseau familial ou tribal qui se manifeste à travers la ''loha'', la solidarité du groupe de parenté. Il y a un besoin de stratégies de développement adaptées pour assurer l'intégration de ces populations spécifiques dans le tissu urbain à travers (1) l'implantation de services sociaux d'éducation et de santé, (2) le financement de microprojets pour combattre le chômage et (3) l'appui en formation pour les coopératives." VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement 2006, hors série 3, Article 4 Download PDF from: VertigO