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The Implications of Changes in Population, Land Use, and Land Management for Surface Runoff in the Upper Nile Basin Area of Ethiopia
Hurni, Hans
Much concern has been raised about population increase in the highlands of Ethiopia and its potential to decrease runoff from the upper Nile Basin to the lowland countries of Sudan and Egypt. The present article examines long-term data on population, land use, land management, rainfall, and surface runoff rates from small test plots (30 m2) and micro-catchments (73–673 ha) in the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Analysis and interpretation of data support the hypothesis that surface runoff and sediment yield from the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands into the upper Nile Basin have most probably increased in the long term due to intensified land use and land degradation induced by population increase, when seen in a historical perspective. Mountain Research and Development 2005, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 147–154 Order via your university library from: BioOne
“Trickling down or spilling over?”
Mason, Simon
Paper presented at the ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Edinburgh, 28 March to 2 April 2003 This paper focuses on the linkages between international and subnational water conflicts in the Eastern Nile and Syr Daria Basins. It follows the notion of “conflict system”, to conceptualize dynamic linkages between different “water conflict arenas”. The aim of our paper is to categorize possible linkages, describe examples and explore implications for water conflict mitigation, with the goal of a better problem-solving potential. Download
La reconstrucción de lo público
Hoffmann, Sabine
La Paz, Muela del Diablo
Sustainable Development and International Cooperation in the Eastern Nile Basin
Amer, Salah El-Din
The following article provides an overview of issues related to international cooperation and water use in the Eastern Nile Basin, thereby introducing the following three papers written from an Ethiopian, Sudanese and Egyptian perspective respectively. Basic environmental and socio-economic data is given. The various national interests and international initiatives in the Nile Basin are introduced. Key areas of consensus between the authors, as well as open questions that still need to be worked on, are elaborated. The article also describes the unique process of how the six authors from three countries worked on this joint publication in the Nile Dialogue Workshop of 2002. Key conclusions are that sustained, non-polemical communication can lead to cooperation, and that cooperation is the cornerstone to sustainable water development. Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 3-14. Available for purchase from: SpringerLink
From Conflict to Cooperation in the Nile Basin
Mason, Simon
PhD Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland
Ethiopia and the Nile
Arsano, Yacob
PhD Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland This thesis addresses the use and management of the Nile waters from a legal/institutional, security, environmental and economic point of view. On the national level the limited institutional and economic capacity to make use of Ethiopia's waters was highlighted as a key factor, slowing development and minimizing Ethiopia's clout to influence international relations to her advantage. On the international level the downstream's (Egypt and Sudan) holding on to the status quo of historical agreements and the principle of "acquired rights" was identified as a major factor blocking cooperative development. The Nile Basin Initiative, since 1999, gives hope for a more cooperative future. The success of the NBI, however, will only be assured if a legal/institutional framework can be agreed on. The PhD ends with various options to increase cooperation, also on non-water issues. Download
Ethiopia and the Eastern Nile Basin
Arsano, Yacob
Ethiopia is the main source of the Nile River, and the country urgently needs water for irrigation and hydro-electric power development. To-date, however, Ethiopia is the country in the Eastern Nile basin that uses the least amount of water from the Nile run-off. There is no basin-wide agreement on the utilization and management of the water resources of the Nile Basin. Unilateral planning and implementation approaches have hindered the possibilities of cooperation and coordinated development. On the national level, economic and institutional capacities are also limited. Past initiatives as well as the current Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) are outlined regarding how far these dilemmas are dealt with. The paper ends with suggestions on how to deal with open questions and lessons learned from the ongoing NBI process. Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 15-27. Available for purchase from: SpringerLink
Sudan and the Nile Basin
Hamad, Osman El-Tom
The following article gives an overview of Sudanese water development facts and potentials and their regional impact on the other countries sharing the Nile River and beyond. These are set in relation to the unique environmental, socio-economic and political context of Sudan. While the availability of land for irrigation is great, water is limited due to Sudans situation upstream of Egypt and downstream of Ethiopia and the Equatorial Lakes. This geographical position makes Sudan take on a mediative approach to international relations in the Nile Basin. Recent steps to cooperation in the Nile Basin Initiative are presented; they highlight the enormous opportunities that exist in the cooperative development of the Nile. Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 28-41 Available from: SpringerLink
Are we Scorpions? The Role of Upstream-Downstream Dialogue in fostering Cooperation in the Nile Basin
Mason, Simon
Water consumed upstream does not flow downstream. Consequently, upstream–downstream relations along a shared river may entail competitive use or even conflict. What is the role of communication in preventing or transforming such behavior? The present article addresses this question based on lessons learned in 3 Dialogue Workshops carried out between 2002 and 2004 in the Eastern Nile Basin, with participants from Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan. It indicates that the danger of upstream–downstream relations is not primarily “scorpion-like” behavior (damaging an opponent), but rather “ostrich-like” behavior (burying one's head in the sand, ignoring unilateral developments). Dialogue is shown to be a key determinant in rectifying this situation, as it is the basis for trust-building, exchange of information, and development of mutually acceptable management options. Other key factors to be considered are the balance of power between highland–lowland actors and the legal/institutional framework governing their interaction. Mountain Research and Development 2005, 25(2), pp. 115-120 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Vulnerability Assessment of Water Resources Systems in the Eastern Nile Basin to Environmental Factors
Abd El-Moghny, Mohamed
Master's Thesis, Cairo University, Egypt "A situation analysis with regard to the vulnerability of water resources systems in the Eastern Nile Basin was carried out. The focus was on using internationally recognized indicators and indices that can provide an insight about the situation in the region in a concise and illustrative fashion. A generic operational framework for assessing vulnerability of water systems was outlined and applied to the Eastern Nile Basin. Based on a careful survey, a list of 31 indicators used for vulnerability assessment were identified and categorized according to an outlined categorical structure designed to separate hydrological and physical indicators from other indicators of socio-economic or political nature. [...]" Download
Discrete Event Simulation for Exploring Strategies
Huang, Dong-Bin
"This paper presents a model structure aimed at offering an overview of the various elements of a strategy and exploring their multidimensional effects through time in an efficient way. It treats a strategy as a set of discrete events planned to achieve a certain strategic goal and develops a new form of causal networks as an interfacing component between decision makers and environment models, e.g., life cycle inventory and material flow models. The causal network receives a strategic plan as input in a discrete manner and then outputs the updated parameter sets to the subsequent environmental models. Accordingly, the potential dynamic evolution of environmental systems caused by various strategies can be stepwise simulated. It enables a way to incorporate discontinuous change in models for environmental strategy analysis, and enhances the interpretability and extendibility of a complex model by its cellular constructs. It is exemplified using an urban water management case in Kunming, a major city in Southwest China. By utilizing the presented method, the case study modeled the cross-scale interdependencies of the urban drainage system and regional water balance systems, and evaluated the effectiveness of various strategies for improving the situation of Dianchi Lake." Environmental Science & Technology 2007, Vol. 41, Issue 3, pp. 915-921 Available for purchase from: ACS Publications
Confronting limitations
Huang, Dong-Bin
"Despite continuous investment and various efforts to control pollution, urban water environments are worsening in large parts of the developing world. In order to reveal potential constraints and limitations of current practices of urban water management and to stimulate proactive intervention, we conducted a material flow analysis of the urban water system in Kunming City. The results demonstrate that the current efficiency of wastewater treatment is only around 25% and the emission of total phosphorous from the city into its receiving water, Dianchi Lake, is more than 25 times higher than its estimated tolerance. With regard to the crisis of water quantity and quality, the goal of a sustainable urban water environment cannot be attained with the current problem-solving approach in the region due to the technical limitations of the conventional urban drainage and treatment systems. A set of strategies is therefore proposed. The urban drainage system in Zurich is used as a reference for a potential best-available technology for conventional urban water management (BAT) scenario in terms of its low combined frequency of sewer overflow." Journal of Environmental Management, online since July 2006 Available online from: ScienceDirect
The Role of NGOs in Preventing and Managing Conflicts Resulting from Water Resources Development in Ethiopia
Bonzi, Rea
Master's Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland "This thesis deals with the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in preventing and managing conflicts arising from water development projects in Ethiopia. It seeks to find out development organization’s comprehension of a conflict, their perception of their role in a conflict setting and their relationship to other organizations. Besides a descriptive part, the thesis also examined reasons seeking to explain the success or failure of NGOs’ efforts in conflict prevention. [...]" Download Summary
Mitigating Conflicts Over Scarce Water Resources in the Highland-lowland System of Mount Kenya
Wiesmann, Urs
The Mount Kenya region offers a great deal of beautiful scenery and attracts tourists from all over the world. What these tourists may not see, however, is the crucial function of Mount Kenya as a water tower for its footzones and adjoining lowland areas. This function is becoming ever more crucial, as populations in these areas are growing at a rapid pace and new land use systems require far more water. These developments have set the stage for increasing conflicts over water resources; to make things worse, water is becoming ever scarcer, especially in the dry areas of the Laikipia Plateau and the Samburu Plains to the north and west of the mountain. This article summarizes the complex ecological and socioeconomic dynamics prevailing in the highland-Blowland system of Mount Kenya—the Ewaso Ng'iro North Basin—and presents a multilevel strategy for mitigating the emerging conflicts over water resources. Mountain Research and Development 2000, 20(1), pp. 10-15. Order via your university library from: BioOne
A la recherche des déterminants institutionnels du bien-être des populations sédentaires et nomades dans la plaine du Waza-Logone de la frontière camerounaise et tchadienne
Fokou, Gilbert
"Cette contribution présente les articulations d’une étude actuellement en cours dans la région du Logone et Chari au Cameroun et dont le but est d’oeuvrer pour l’élaboration des savoirs et des connaissances pour le développement pastoral. De nombreux groupes de populations sédentaires et nomades vivent dans cette localité et dépendent des plaines inondées du Sud du lac Tchad pour leur subsistance. Or, les ressources naturelles connaissent de grandes variations saisonnières et deviennent parfois la propriété des groupes sédentaires. De ce fait, les éleveurs nomades éprouvent de nombreuses difficultés pour accéder non seulement aux pâturages et à l’eau, mais aussi aux services de santé de qualité (centres hospitaliers, médicaments efficaces). L’ambition ici est de définir de nouvelles conditions institutionnelles d’accès aux soins de santé pour les populations sédentaires et nomades. En fait, la plupart des problèmes auxquels sont confrontés les nomades de nos jours seraient dus à l’inadaptation des règles formelles en vigueur aux stratégies de survie des populations rurales. Celles mises en place à l’époque pré-coloniale ne sont plus opérationnelles. L’on pourrait conclure, sous forme d’hypothèse à vérifier, que la définition de nouveaux cadres institutionnels de gestion des ressources naturelles pourrait contribuer à l’amélioration des conditions de santé des pasteurs nomades." Médecine Tropicale 2004, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 1-5 Download
Les bassins hydrographiques internationaux
Luzi, Samuel
"Alors que le discours sur la « gestion de l'eau » privilégiait autrefois une approche axée sur l'ingénierie, il adopte désormais une perspective plus globale qui privilégie la protection de l'environnement, l'efficacité, ainsi que les aspects politiques et institutionnels de la gestion et de la planification intégrée et coopérative de l'eau. C'est la crainte d'une « guerre de l'eau » qui a permis d'accélérer l'intégration de la gestion de l'eau dans les bassins versants partagés ; les questions hydriques figurent désormais à l'ordre du jour de décideurs haut placés et d'organisations internationales spécialistes des questions de sécurité, et des cadres spécifiques ont été créés pour gérer les relations conflictuelles entre groupes d'opérateurs à différents niveaux." Les Cahiers de la Sécurité 2006, No. 63, pp. 35-39 Available from: INHES
Integrated Water Resources Management
André de la Porte, Cherryl
PhD Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) Lausanne, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
Ethiopia and the Nile
Arsano, Yacob
Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Water-Related Environmental Services and Options for their Sustainable Use in the Pangani Basin, East Africa
Notter, Benedikt
The study develops and applies a methodology for quantifying ecosystem services in the water sector in the East African Pangani Basin for the year 2000 and for scenarios for 2025. Special attention is given to the criteria of valuation by stakeholders and accessibility of water resources, which necessitates the use of a high-resolution hydrological process model. Services quantified include domestic water, water for irrigated or rainfed agriculture, hydropower production, and environmental flows. PhD Thesis at Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern Download
The impact of land use and climate on the river runoff of Sokuluk River Basin
Ershova, Natasha
PhD Thesis, Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University, Kazakhstan For further information please contact the author
Monitoring and modelling for the sustainable management of water resources in tropical mountain basins.
MacMillan, Lindsay
This paper presents a rare example of a relatively intensive, variable scale, monitoring network in tropical highland Africa. Examples of results from this monitoring are given, which reveal the importance of vegetation cover and landuse in the generation of storm flow, groundwater recharge and decline in river flows. The calibration of a hydrological model developmed for this region, together with some early results from the simulation of landuse change scenarios, are also presented. In: Bugmann H et al. Global Change and Mountain Regions: An Overview of Current Knowledge. Springer, pp. 605-616.
Assessment of water quality problems and mitigation potentials by using material flow analysis
Schaffner, Monika
"Material flow analysis (MFA) is a promising tool for river water quality management. Based on orders-ofmagnitude estimations, the approach provides an overview of pollution problems and their dimensions in a river system, allowing to identify key sources and pathways of pollution, and to evaluate mitigation priorities. The current study aims at investigating MFA to assess river water quality problems and mitigation measures in developing countries, based on a case-study carried out in the Tha Chin River Basin (TRB), Thailand." Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Role of Water Sciences in Transboundary River Basin Management, Ubon Ratchathani (Thailand), 10-12 March 2005 Download PDF from: MekongBasinResearchNetwork
Conflict Management Over Water Rights in Ethiopia
Arsano, Yacob
In: Baechler G, Spillmann KR, Suliman M. editors. 2002. Transformation of Resource Conflicts: Approach and Instruments. Bern: Peter Lang, pp 451-476. Order from: Peter Lang Publishing Group
Sustainable land management – a new approach to soil and water conservation in Ethiopia
Mitiku, Haile
This book suggests following the broader approach of Sustainable Land Management (SLM), which aims at ecological soundness, economic viability and social acceptability, and thus places SWC in a more holistic framework that is closer to farmers’ reality. This, however, requires that soil and water conservation (SWC) experts focus less on searching for standard solutions valid once and for all, and more on engaging in a continuous process of developing and adapting technologies with farmers. The present book was written for future SWC and land management experts in Ethiopia. It is based on results of the country’s Soil Conservation Research Program (SCRP), and the experience of researchers, experts, extension workers and Ethiopian peasants. The book aims to encourage readers to take a more critical look at land problems and responses to them, to ask more critical questions, and not to take standard solutions for granted. Download
Transformation of Resource Conflicts and the Case of Woito River Valley in Southern Ethiopia
Arsano, Yacob
In: Flury M, Geiser U. 2002. Local Environmental Management in a North-South Perspective. Issues of Participation and Knowledge Management. vdf Hochschulverlag Zurich & IOS Press Amsterdam, pp. 91-108 Order from: vdf Hochschulverlag Zurich
Impact monitoring in soil and water conservation.
Herweg, Karl
Despite the huge amount of information available on soil and water conservation (SWC), there seems to be a considerable gap in knowledge about the impact of SWC technologies, such as the effectiveness of on-farm technologies in controlling soil erosion, their impact on human and natural resources, cost-benefit ratios, the level of integration into prevailing farming systems, etc. This paper introduces a methodology for impact monitoring and assessment developed by an international expert group over the past years. More than anything else, impact monitoring requires a significant change of mind. This involves looking beyond one’s own profession and even one’s own mandate. The focus of the methodology presented is on sustainable land management, which puts SWC into a wider thematic framework and thus helps to identify a broader range of the side-effects and impacts of SWC activities. In: De Graaf J, Sombatpanit S. (Eds.): Monitoring and Evaluation of Soil Conservation and Watershed Development Projects. World Association of Soil and Water Conservation.
L´émergence du social dans la privatisation de l´eau à Buenos Aires
Catenazzi, Andrea
In: Bouchanine F, Rabinovich A, editors. Sciences sociales et prise en compte du social dans les politiques urbaines: connaissances pour l’action, connaissances dans l’action. submitted Download
Substantiation of selection of research region on sustainable water resources management on the irrigation systems of Chui Valley of Kyrgyzstan
Ivanova, Natalia
The choice of the research region on sustainable water resource management is based on history, topography, river network, water distribution, geology, and soils. Focus is put on the effects of the economic transition and the availability of data on climate and soil. Based on that six criteria were defined and used for selection leading to the conclusion that Sokuluk river is a typical one for Chuy Valley of Kyrgyzstan. Bulletin of Agrarian Science. Download
Conflict Transformation in Central Asia
Bichsel, Christine
This book provides the first systematic analysis of peace-building in Central Asia for inter-ethnic conflicts over water and land in the Ferghana Valley based on concrete, in-depth and on-site investigation. The core analysis centres on peacebuilding projects in Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan by three international aid agencies – an international NGO, a bilateral governmental donor and a multilateral agency – and the shared approach which the donors developed and used for conflict transformation. Using ethnographic case material, the author critically examines both the theoretical assumptions guiding this approach and its empirical outcomes when put into practice. Building on existing work in conflict transformation and the ethnography of international assistance in Central Asia, the book sheds light on Western attempts to transform the post-socialist societies of Central Asia and provides fresh empirical data on and insights into irrigation practices, social institutions, and state and identity formation in the Ferghana Valley. The book was published by Routledge in its Central Asian Studies series. Order
Access to Water for irrigation in Post-Soviet Agriculture
Lindberg, Emma
Master's Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland For further information, please contact: Emma Lindberg
Preventing and Resolving Water Use Conflicts in the Mount Kenya Highland–Lowland System through Water Users' Associations
Kiteme, Boniface
"In recent decades, the Mount Kenya highland–lowland system, which includes the Ewaso Ngiro North Basin, has experienced complex ecological and socioeconomic dynamics. These are reflected in changing land use systems and practices as well as in a rapidly growing human population, especially in the footzones and adjacent lowlands. These changes have exerted unremitting pressure on water resources, especially because the demand for water by different user groups has continued to grow, against the backdrop of expensive alternative sources (rainwater and groundwater harvesting) and increasingly dwindling river water resources. As each of the user groups moves to make substantial claims to available river water, competition for the resource becomes even sharper, thus setting the stage for conflicts related to scarcity that intensify during the dry season, at times resulting in fatal physical conflicts among different user groups in the basin, especially between upstream and downstream users. Different approaches have been used to address these scarcity-related conflicts. The present article discusses Water Users' Associations as one of the most effective initiatives launched to address the problem of water use conflicts in the basin in the recent past." Mountain Research and Development 2002, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp. 332-337 Available from: BioOne
Enhanced Decision-Making Based on Local Knowledge
Liniger, Hanspeter
Many types of problems caused by land degradation can be documented worldwide. The main natural resources affected are soils, water, natural vegetation, and wildlife; but cultivated plants are exposed to even greater damage, which poses a threat to food security as well. Soil degradation is one of the most crucial processes of land degradation and environmental change. Over a quarter of the world's agricultural land has been damaged by long-term soil degradation, corresponding to one-tenth of the earth's land surface. Every day land users and soil and water conservation (SWC) specialists evaluate experience and generate know-how related to land management, improvement of soil fertility, and protection of soil resources. Most of this valuable knowledge, however, is not well documented or easily accessible, and comparison of different types of experience is difficult. The World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) has the mission of providing tools that allow SWC specialists to share their valuable knowledge in soil and water management, assist them in their search for appropriate SWC technologies and approaches, and support them in making decisions in the field and at the planning level. Mountain Research and Development 2002, 22(1), pp. 14-18 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Gemeinsames staatlich-kollektives Wassermanagement in Cochabamba, Bolivien
Hoffmann, Sabine
In: Schweizerisches Jahrbuch für Entwicklungspolitik. Öffentlich-private Partnerschaften und internationale Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, Band 24, Nr. 2. 2005. iuéd, Genf, pp. 183-194. Download
River Water Shortage in a Highland–Lowland System
Aeschbacher, Jos
The highland–lowland system of the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin, with Mount Kenya functioning as a crucial water tower, has reached and repeatedly exceeded the limits of water availability in the past decade. In contrast to the heavily decreasing low flow discharge, the mean discharge does not show any decreasing tendency. This is due to higher flood flows, which may be induced by accelerated runoff generation due to land use change. The present study seeks to support Water Users' Associations (WUAs, ie self-help initiatives aiming to mitigate conflicts over the allocation of water) by providing them with up-to-date information about demand, supply and use of river water, as well as tools and methods for improving water management. Mountain Research and Development 2005, 25(2), pp. 155-162 Order via your university library from: BioOne
NGOs in Conflict Prevention: Experiences from the Water Sector in Ethiopia
Bonzi, Rea
While development cooperation can cause or exacerbate conflicts, withholding aid is not the solution. The issue is how to provide aid in a manner that prevents conflict, so as to achieve sustainable peace. This Practical Note examines how NGOs have prevented and managed conflicts arising from water projects in Ethiopia. Development in Practice 2006, 16(2) Available from: Development in Practice
On- and Off-site Effectiveness of Soil and Water Conservation in Switzerland
Schneider , Flurina
Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of Swiss Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART. Download
Managing water resources in dynamic settings: A multi-level, multi-stakeholder perspective.
Ngana, James
The aim of the present article is to contribute to the debate on the role of research in sustainable management of water and related resources, based on experiences in the Upper Ewaso Ng’iro and Pangani river basins in East Africa. Both basins are characterised by humid, resource-rich highlands and extensive semi-arid lowlands, by growing demand for water and related resources, and by numerous conflicting stakeholder interests. Issues of scale and level, on the one hand, and the normative dimension of sustainability, on the other hand, are identified as key challenges for research that seeks to produce relevant and applicable results for informed decision-making. A multi-level and multi-stakeholder perspective, defined on the basis of three minimal principles, is proposed here as an approach to research for informed decision-making. Key lessons learnt from applying these principles in the two river basins are presented and iscussed in the light of current debate. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 91-106. Download
Part 1: Analysis and policy implications. In: Where the land is greener. Case studies and analysis of soil and water conservation initiatives worldwide
Liniger, Hanspeter
Various land use categories are covered here – cropland, as well as forest and grazing land. The technologies range from terraces to agroforestry systems; from rehabilitation of common pastures to conservation agriculture; from vermiculture to water harvesting. Several are well established successes – others are innovative, relatively unknown and full of promise. The technologies are matched by studies of the ‘approaches’ that have underpinned their development and spread. Some of these approaches are descriptions of projects, but there are also fascinating explanations of how spontaneous development and spread has taken place. The book does not stop with case studies: there are two analytical sections, taking the technologies and approaches in turn. Finally there are policy pointers for decision makers and donors, who are challenged to invest further – to make the land greener. In: Liniger HP, Critchley W, editors. WOCAT
La cogestion étatique-communautaire de l'eau à Cochabamba (Bolivie)
Hoffmann, Sabine
"L’article de Sabine Hoffmann aborde la notion de partenariat par le biais des régimes institutionnels de propriété et de possession. Aux yeux de l’auteure, les partenariats posent inéluctablement des conditions institutionnelles qui définissent les droits, les obligations, les privilèges et les non-droits des acteurs concernés. L’article expose les différentes logiques auxquelles sont soumis les acteurs dans le cadre de partenariats : rationalité économique (liée à une économie de propriété) ou raison écosociale (liée à une économie de possession). Quelle logique guide les acteurs ? La réponse apportée par l’auteure s’appuie sur une étude de cas menée à Cochabamba, en Bolivie, concernant l’accès à l’eau potable." Annuaire suisse de politique de développement 2005, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 179-190 Download
Effect of conflict on water resources in Nepal [in Nepali]
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In Nepali In: Hamro Sampada (Our Heritage) 8(11):1-3. Download
Egypt and the Nile Basin
Hefny, Magdy
The following paper examines the Nile question from an Egyptian perspective. The Nile is Egypts main source of water, and 96% of this water originates from outside of its territory. This explains why water is a key security issue for Egypt, and why, from Egypts point of view, cooperation with the upstream Nile countries is the only way forward. Egypts water policy focuses on demand management, environmental protection and international joint projects to increase the water supply (e.g. Jonglei canal). Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 42-50. Available from: SpringerLink
Double-Edged Hydropolitics on the Nile
Luzi, Samuel
This thesis focuses on domestic processes of water policy making in Egypt and Ethiopia in the context of transboundary conflict and cooperation in the Nile Basin. It presents results at two different levels. First, the water sectors of Egypt and Ethiopia are analyzed with regard to their capacity to jointly design and implement effective and sustainable strategy for transboundary river development. Second, the study produces general insights regarding the nature of transboundary river conflicts and the challenges of conflict mitigation. PhD Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) Zurich, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
Monitoring and Modeling Crop Growth, Water Use and Production Under Dry-Land Environment North-West of Mount Kenya
Gitonga, Jeremiah Njeru Lewis
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland "This study was initiated with the aim of using long term monitoring data collected at two representative semi arid stations to examine the impact of biophysical environment (climate and soil) and cultivation method (with and without water conservation) on crop performance (growth and production). Using the knowledge gained from this analysis, the study evaluated and adapted the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM) model to develop a simulation tool for the production system practiced by the smallscale farmers in the study area. The adapted APSIM model was used to examine the impact of water conservation on maize growth and production." Download
Assessing and Managing Scarce Tropical Mountain Water Resources
Liniger, Hanspeter
The present article documents increasing water abstraction and the difficulties in establishing limits for low flows such as the Q80 value (flow available on 80% of the days per year). The article also presents the role of Water Users' Associations (WUAs) in mitigating water conflicts related to over-abstraction. Evaluation of the activities of 13 WUAs showed that they solved 45 of 52 conflicts. WUAs are also involved in activities such as environmental education, awareness creation, improved irrigation practices, afforestation, and regulating water. The recent restructuring of the government ministry resulted in a formalized role for WUAs. Long-term data on availability, abstraction, and use of water are needed to mitigate water conflicts within and between WUAs, negotiate water allocation, and establish allocation thresholds. Mountain Research and Development 2005, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp. 163–173 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Title: Water discharge stabilizer for irrigation systems of the Sokuluk river basin
Askaraliev, Bakyt
Bulletin of Kyrgyz Agrarian University 1(7):263-267
Managing Water in a Dynamic Setting: The Challenges of Change in Central Asia
Maselli, Daniel
This paper summarises research activities related to water and water management carried out mainly in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan between 2002 and 2008, and anchors them in a broader regional water management context. Results show that climate change and socio-political transformation processes have heavy impacts on the condition of natural resources as well as on people's livelihoods. While rapid glacier retreat is providing more water for agriculture, river flow modelling suggests a forward shift of the main water discharge from the end of July to June. This may lead to more acute water shortages in the lowlands towards the end of the summer period. Dilapidated irrigation infrastructure, institutional failures, and inappropriate use of water by inexperienced farmers are the main reasons why less than 30% of the water reaches its final destination. [...] In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 223-239. Download
Towards a System Dynamics Framework for Understanding Interactions of Head- and Tail-Users in Irrigation Systems in Kyrgyzstan
Gallati, Justus
Conference paper for the 24th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society July 23-27, 2006 Nijmegen, The Netherlands The paper outlines a conceptual framework for a dynamic model for collective irrigation management. Furthermore a preliminary causal loop diagram for the interaction of upstream- and downstream users is presented. The study builds on the results of a workshop with local participants in Kyrgyzstan on sustainable regional development and on the literature on collective resource management. Download
Problems of managing water resources for the irrigation systems of Kyrgyzstan under market economy conditions
Ivanova, Natalia
Presentation on Irrkutsk Scientific Conference. In Russian Irrkutsk Scientific Conference, Institute of Geography, pp. 185 - 187. Download
Water issues: the need for action at different levels
Zehnder, Alexander J.B.
"Fair fresh water distribution among humans and nature and among all sectors will be one of the main challenges of the 21st century. There is a complex interplay between the different water users, and clear systematics are needed for efficient decision making. Water uses can be divided into four sectors, (i) water for people, services and industries, (ii) water for agriculture, (iii) water for nature, and (iv) water for energy production. A number of water related issues are relevant for each sector, though not all with the same importance. The issues relate either to water quality, water quantity, (urban) water infrastructure and integrated water management, and socio-economics and institutional aspects. Depending on the sector and the issues, there is an appropriate level for actions. Responsibilities for providing water for people, services, and industries must be taken at the local level (communities, cities, districts). Water for nature and the provision of ecosystem services ask for a more regional, national, or even multinational decision-making structure. The demographic development of the coming 25 years will be a challenge for agriculture to satisfy the food needs of all humans. The adequate and just access to agricultural products needs to be internationally guaranteed. Decisions for all sectors and on all levels imply formidable economic challenges, which will accompany human societies for the next decennia." Aquatic Sciences 2003, Vol. 65, No. 1, pp. 1-20 Available from: SpringerLink
Using a Material Flow Analysis Model to Assess River Water Quality Problems and Mitigation Potentials
Schaffner, Monika
"The Material Flow Analysis carried out for Tha Chin River Basin is illustrated by an in-depth study on nutrient contributions from aquaculture." Download