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Solid–liquid separation of faecal sludge using drying beds in Ghana
Cofie, Olufunke
This study investigated the possibility of recycling nutrients in human excreta and municipal solid waste for use in agriculture. It reports on the use of drying beds in separating solid and liquid fractions of faecal sludge (FS) so that the solids can be co-composted and the organic matter and part of the nutrients captured for urban agriculture... Water Research 2006, 40:1, pp. 75-82 Available Online from: Science Direct
Urban agricultural land use and characterization of mosquito larval habitats in a medium-sized town of Côte d’Ivoire
Matthys, Barbara
"Urban agriculture is common across Africa and contributes to the livelihoods of urban dwellers. Some crop systems create suitable mosquito breeding sites and thus might affect malaria transmission. The purpose of this study was to identify, map, and characterize potential mosquito breeding sites in agricultural land use zones in a medium-sized town of western Côte d’Ivoire and to assess risk factors for productive Anopheles breeding sites. Two surveys were carried out; one toward the end of the rainy season and the second one during the dry season. [...] The highest Anopheles larval productivity was observed in rice paddies, agricultural trenches between vegetable patches, and irrigation wells. An indirect link could be established between the occurrence of productive Anopheles breeding sites and agricultural land use through specific man-made habitats, in particular agricultural trenches, irrigation wells, and rice paddies. Our findings have important bearings for the epidemiology and control of urban malaria in sub-Saharan Africa." Journal of Vector Ecology 2006, 31 (2), pp. 319-333 Download from: Journal of Vector Ecology
Reuse and Recycle of Bio-residue (percolate) from Constructed Wetland Treating Septage
Hadsoi, Sukon
Master's Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand "The prime objective of this research is to investigate the suitability of percolate from constructed wetland (CW) treating septage in agricultural application with the specific focus on determination of appropriate application ratio of percolate on sunflower plantation and crop yields." Download
Object-oriented land cover/land use classification for up-scaling agricultural nutrient budgets
Forster, Dionys
In: Bill, R. (ed.) 2007. GIS - Theory and Applications, Textbook for the DAAD Summer School, Internal Report, Volume 16, Rostock University, pp. 177-188.
Protection: A Means for Sustainable Development?
Wallner, Astrid
The Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn World Heritage Site (WHS) comprises landscapes that are shaped by centuries of traditional agricultural use. Given the dramatic changes in the agricultural sector, the risk faced by cultural landscapes in the Region is possibly greater than that faced by the natural landscape inside the perimeter of the WHS. Maintaining the right balance between preservation of the WHS and promotion of sustainable regional development constitutes a key challenge for management of the WHS. This process made it possible to jointly define the present situation and thus create a basis for legitimising future action. From this participatory process, a link between the concepts of ‘protected area’ and sustainable development in the region emerged. Download
The effect of irrigated urban agriculture on malaria, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in different settings of Côte d’Ivoire
Matthys, Barbara
PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
Concentration and monopolisation of seed market: Impact on food security and farmer’s rights in mountains.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
The common proverb “Save seed in famine and save life in crowd” has even more relevance in the context of corporate globalisation and privatisation of genetic resources. This statement vividly highlights the importance of plant genetic resources in sustaining production system, respecting farmer’s rights and protecting national sovereignty of country of origin of those genetic resources. Protection, promotion and sustainable use of genetic resources for food and agriculture have even specific importance to secure local control over food production, distribution and utilisation system. Therefore, seed has an imperative economic prospect, socio-cultural value, political essence and continuation of viable production system. Download from: Mountain Forum
Lease farming in Kerala: Findings from micro level studies
Nair, K.N.
"[...] This paper examines some micro-level studies on tenancy in Kerala, more specifically, its prevalence across locations and crops, characteristics of lessors and lessees, the terms of lease, and the income derived from lease cultivation and in the light of the analysis, argues for institutionalised arrangements for the expansion of lease cultivation, rather than sterner measures to check it. [...]" CDS Working Paper no. 378. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies. >>Download
Indian agricultural development in the context of economic reforms
Künzler, Marion
Master's Thesis, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland "This work examines the influence of reforms in the 1990s regarding the agricultural development in India. Many studies have analysed the impact of these reforms but most of them focused on foreign trade or the industry and service sector rather than on the agricultural sector. [...]" Download Summary
Livelihood Risks and Coping Strategies
Nair, K.N.
"This paper examines the various dimensions of livelihood risk as informed by a in-depth case study of an agrarian village namely, Cherumad in Kerala. The livelihood risk in Cherumad since the last quarter of the 1990’s has been unique and unprecedented in their nature and intensity. The effect of price risk and productivity risk of crops became an income risk to the farming community. For agricultural labour too it was an income risk with double effects of wage risk and employment risk. These risk have resulted in a general fall in the living standards of people." CDS Working Paper no. 394. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies. >>Download
Agrarian Distress and Rural Livelihoods
Nair, K.N.
"This study examines the impact of agrarian distress on the different socio-economic groups, the strategies of livelihood adopted by households and the local institution in shaping these strategies. The study is based on the data collected from in-depth socio-economic enquiries conducted in Upputhara Panchayat in Idukki District. An important conclusion of the study is that the strategies of livelihood framed in response to a shock could vary across households depending on the extent of their asset ownership." CDS Working Paper no. 392. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies. >>Download
Development of conservation agriculture: Application and spread
Schäfer, Natalie
Master Thesis at University of Bern Download
Mapping H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza risk in Southeast Asia
Gilbert, Marius
"...This article analyses the statistical association between the recorded HPAI H5N1 virus presence and a set of five key environmental variables comprising elevation, human population, chicken numbers, duck numbers, and rice cropping intensity for three synchronous epidemic waves in Thailand and Vietnam. A consistent pattern emerges suggesting risk to be associated with duck abundance, human population, and rice cropping intensity in contrast to a relatively low association with chicken numbers..." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 2008, Vol. 105, No. 12, pp. 4769-4774. Available online from: PNAS.org
Soil erosion and conservation in global agriculture
Hurni, Hans
Land-use change is one of the main drivers of many environmental change processes. It influences the basic resources of land use, including the soil. Its impact on soil often occurs so creepingly that land managers hardly contemplate initiating ameliorative or counterbalance measures. Poor land management has degraded vast amounts of land, reduced our ability to produce enough food, and is a major threat to rural livelihoods in many developing countries. To date, there has been no single unifying volume that addresses the multifaceted impacts of land use on soils. This book has responded to this challenge by bringing together renowned academics and policy experts to analyze the patterns, driving factors and proximate causes, and the socioeconomic impacts of soil degradation. Policy measures to prevent irreversible degradation and rehabilitate degraded soils are also identified. In: Braimoh AK, Vlek PLG, editors. Land Use and Soil Resources. Dordrecht, The Netherlands; London, UK: Springer, pp 41–71. Download from: Springer
Inclusive Land Policy and Human Security in Post-Conflict Situation: A Study of Parsauni and Pratapur VDCs of Nawalparasi District
Shrestha , Lisa
Land is a very strategic socio-economic asset in an agrarian economy where wealth and survival are measured by control of, and access to, land. It is also the source for inequity, power struggle and conflict. This study is thus carried out with an objective to examine the inter-relationship between access to land and human security in post conflict situation. It is found that the policy and power plays a significant role in creating land based inequities. The role of migrant landholders is found to be more significant in the armed conflict than the indigenous groups. The sole reason for armed conflict is found to be the land based inequities and power relation between the large and marginal landholders. However, the real actors are not satisfied with the outcome of the armed conflict as land based inequities are left unaddressed. As a consequence, they feel there are chances of another form of armed conflict. Masters Thesis at Kathmandu University Download
An Assessment of Trends in the Extent of Swidden in Southeast Asia
Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich
In: Human Ecology 37(3):269-280. Download
Specific characteristics in the development of erosion processes under rainfed agriculture
Akhmadov, K.
In: Pathways to Increasing the Productivity of Tajikistan’s Soils [in Russian].
Agrarian Distress and Livelihood Strategies
Nair, K.N.
"This paper examines the household livelihood strategies under agrarian distress in Pulpalli Panchayat of Kerala. It also looks at the relationship between household assets and livelihood strategies. The negotiations of institutions by the marginalized and depressed sections of the society were analysed in detail." CDS Working Paper no. 396. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies. >>Download
Features of Agrarian Change in a Maharashtra Village: A Study in Karkatta Village, Latur
Kumar, Awanish
Kumar A. 2012. Features of Agrarian Change in a Maharashtra Village: A Study in Karkatta Village, Latur [M.Phil. dissertation]. Mumbai, India: Tata Institute of Social Sciences. In the larger context of debates on agrarian change, this study looks at the nature of changes in agrarian relations in a village in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Download Conclusions
Transnational Land Deals for Agriculture in the Global South. Analytical Report Based on the Land Matrix Database
Anseeuw, W
Bern, Switzerland; Montpellier, France; Hamburg, Germany: CDE/CIRAD/GIGA.
Access to Water for irrigation in Post-Soviet Agriculture
Lindberg, Emma
Master's Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland For further information, please contact: Emma Lindberg
Wiederverwenden statt verschwenden / Recycler au lieu de jeter
Zurbruegg, Christian
This article discusses alternative sanitation systems enabling the reuse of human waste (organic solid waste, urine, faeces) in agriculture. Case studies in Mexico, China, and Ghana illustrate how the concept of closing nutrient cycles can be succesfully implemented. Helvetas Partnerschaft 2006, Number 183, pp.16-18 Download from Helvetas: German version / French version
Marketing Compost
Rouse, Jonathan
The many benefits of compost to agriculture, the environment and society are often poorly understood and little appreciated. As a result, compost producers around the world face great difficulties selling their high-quality products. This book is designed to help compost producers in low and middle-income countries run viable initiatives by unlocking the financial value of their product. It includes practical advice, templates and inspiring examples of how marketing techniques have been used in composting initiatives around the world. Dübendorf, Zurich: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). Download
Espaces forestiers, système de production agraire et dégradation des forêts à Madagascar
Ramamonjisoa, Bruno
"La dégradation de l'espace résiduel forestier constitue un des problèmes majeurs du développement agricole à Madagascar. Malgré l'importance de l'aide internationale dans le cadre de la mise en œuvre du PNAE les forêts se sont dégradées à un rythme de 1,7% par an. Aux lacunes techniques d'encadrement paysan et l'insuffisance des connaissances sur la forêt Malgache (croissance lente, relief accidenté) ont été proposées des solutions institutionnelles qui prônent la responsabilisation des acteurs locaux dans la gestion forestière. Cet article vise à évaluer la pertinence des outils institutionnels et des concepts utilisés pour la protection des forêts à Madagascar à partir d'analyse institutionnelle et spatiale par comparaison des normes juridiques et techniques avec les pratiques réelles (analyse des filières et diagnostic technique) [...]". Terre Malgache 2005, No. 24, pp. 92-114 Download
Verbreitung der Direktsaat in der Schweiz
Ledermann, Thomas, Ledermann, Thomas
Agrarforschung 15(8):408-413 Download
The Tajik Pamirs: Valley agriculture in the Western Pamirs
Breu, Thomas
The Tajik Pamirs: Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region: The present publication provides a summary of the outcomes of the Pamir Strategy Project (PSP). It portrays life in the Pamirs, along with development challenges and options, and presents practical and participatory approaches that can lead to sustainable mountain development. In addition, this publication outlines the lessons learnt within the PSP by presenting and evaluationg methods and apporaches such as participatory village studies, multi-level stakeholder workshops for strategy development, knowledge generation processes, and Geographic Information Systmes as decision support tools for sustainable mountain development. In: Breu T, and Hurni H, editors. The Tajik Pamirs. Challenges of Sustainable Development in an Isolated Mountain Region. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, pp 20-21. Download
Making a Living in Uncertainty: Agro-Pastoral Livelihoods and Institutional Transformations in Post-Socialist Rural Kyrgyzstan
Steimann, Bernd
Why is rural Kyrgyzstan experiencing widespread poverty and a considerable divide between the wealthy and the poor – despite twenty years of independence and sustained efforts to reform the rural economy? Drawing on an innovative livelihoods perspective with a focus on institutions, the author illustrates how the Kyrgyz agrarian reforms of the 1990s have fundamentally altered rural property relations. Not only have the reforms redefined the economic value and social significance of land and other resources, they have redefined the livelihood prospects of the rural population. Existing disparities between the asset-rich and the asset-poor have been reinforced, and their social relations have increasingly become embedded in a poorly regulated economic system. The book provides a vivid example of the long-term effects of an agrarian “shock therapy” and shows how the introduction of seemingly “robust” institutions runs the risk of widening the existing gap between the rich and the poor. Download book (10.1 MB)
Distress Debt and Suicides among Agrarian Households
Nair, K.N.
"This paper examines the factors and process underlying agrarian distress in Kerala by undertaking the case studies of three villages situated in Wayanad and Idukki districts namely, Cherumad, Kappikkunnu and Upputhara. The impact of distress on household livelihoods and indebtedness and how they cope up with the situation are examined with entire village and intra village analysis of data. The process of agrarian distress which resulted in suicides were analysed through a few in-depth studies." CDS Working Paper no. 397. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Centre for Development Studies >>Download
Urban agriculture and operational mosquito larvae control: mitigating malaria risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Dongus, Stefan
This study describes how simple participatory mapping, GIS and remote sensing applications can enable successful urban malaria control. Dongus S. 2009. Urban agriculture and operational mosquito larvae control: mitigating malaria risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PhD thesis. University of Basel. Download
The Status of Public Agricultural Extension Services in Maharashtra
Bheemeshwar, Reddy
Master's thesis at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai The purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of public agricultural extension services in terms of it access, the investment incurred on it and to suggest certain measures for more accessible and effective agricultural extension service to support farmers of Maharashtra. Download
Le réseau social des maraîchers à Abidjan agit sur la perception des préoccupations et des risques sanitaires liés à l’eau
Matthys, Barbara
"L'objectif de la présente étude conduite dans des zones de production maraîchère d'Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, était d'analyser les problèmes principaux des cultivateurs; leur perceptions des maladies et des risques sanitaires et la corrélation entre les risques sanitaires et le statut socio-économique des ménages ainsi que la cohésion sociale dans les communautés maraîchères. Les problèmes principaux sont l'insécurité foncière et de difficultés de commercialisation. Les préoccupations sanitaires sont la fatigue et l'insalubrité. En l'absence d'une éducation sanitaire fondée et des interventions localement adaptées, les cultivateurs n'accordent pas une attention particulière à la prévention des risques sanitaires. Le support technique, en concordance avec l'éducation et la communication de la prévention des risques sanitaires, promettent une augmentation de la productivité et une amélioration des moyens de subsistance des ménages cultivateurs à Abidjan." VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement 2006, hors série 3, Article 8 Download PDF from: VertigO
Urban farming and malaria risk factors in a medium-sized town of Côte d’Ivoire
Matthys, Barbara
"Urbanization occurs at a rapid pace across Africa and Asia and affects people’s health and well-being. A typical feature in urban settings of Africa is the maintenance of traditional livelihoods, including agriculture. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria risk factors in urban farming communities in a medium-sized town in Côte d’Ivoire. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out among 112 households from six agricultural zones. [...] Our findings indicate that specific crop systems and specific agricultural practices may increase the risk of malaria in urban settings of tropical Africa." American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2006, 75(6), pp. 1223-1231 Available for purchase from: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
The declining rice-fish farming
Nair, K.N.
"In the coastal regionns of India, a complex and ecologically responsive farming system has evolved over centuries. In this system, rice an fish cultivation alternates trough a mechanism of water control. This paper discusses the evolution of the socio-political and institutional arrangements in such and integrated farming system (Know as kaipad cultivation) in Ezhome Panchayat in Kerala that emerged out of collective action, and documents how they could not be sustained. The decline of kaipad cultivation has been adversely affecting the livehoods of a segment of agricultural labour households, especially the women and the elderly. They are several constraints to the revival of this cultivation. Nevertheless, reviving this is vital for ecorestoration and to ensure justice to the disadvantaged people." Sociological Bulletin 2004 , Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 178-206 Available from: Article@INIST
An Integrated Approach to Environmental Sanitation and Urban Agriculture
Schertenleib, Roland
"Environmental sanitation comprises disposal and treatment of human excreta, solid waste and wastewater, control of disease vectors, and provision of washing facilities for personal and domestic hygiene. The conventional approach to environmental sanitation is characterised by a linear waste management system, where valuable plant nutrients are often not only wasted, but also create pollution problems in receiving waters. Closing the nutrient loop is one of the main objectives of a more ecological approach to environmental sanitation. Reuse of wastewater and organic waste in urban agriculture may contribute to closing this nutrient loop. In addition to food security and income generation, urban agricultural activities can thus help to improve public health and resource management. However, some urban agricultural processes, such as “agricultural practices”, “soil quality management” and “irrigation”, still requires further research." ISHS Acta Horticulturae 2004, No. 643: International Conference on Urban Horticulture Available from: ISHS Acta Horticulturae
Modeling non-point source pollution from rice farming in the Thachin River Basin
Schaffner, Monika
With the worldwide intensification of agriculture, non-point source pollution of surface waters has become a pressing issue. Conventional river water quality models consider non-point sources as accumulated entries into the rivers and do not investigate into the processes generating the pollution at its source, thus preventing the determination of effective mitigation measures. The models require extensive data inputs, which is a deficiency in many developing and emerging countries with limited data availability. The current study applies a Material Flow Model as a complementary approach to quantify non-point source pollution from agricultural areas. Rice farming in the Thachin River Basin is presented as a case study, with a focus on nutrients. The total nitrogen and phosphorus flows from rice farming to the river system are quantified, the key parameters influencing these flows are determined and potential mitigation measures are discussed. The results show that rice contributes considerable nutrient loads to the Thachin River Basin. Scenario simulations demonstrate that a significant nutrient load reduction could be achieved by following the official recommendations for fertilizer application, thus confirming the local efforts to introduce best management practice. Our results underline the importance of non-point source pollution control in intensive agricultural areas, particularly of tropical lowland delta areas such as the Central Plains of Thailand. The specific benefit of applying a Material Flow Model in this context is that with limited data availability, one can reach an understanding of the system and gain a first overview over its key pollution problems. This can serve as supportive basis for determining consecutive in-depth research requirements. Paper available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/2630616v30q61506/?MUD=MP
Collaborative research in the development of organic agriculture in Switzerland - a case study
Aeberhard, Andrea
In: Daub CH, Burger P, Scherrer Y, editors. Creating Values for Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the 2nd International Sustainability Conference. Basel, pp 209-211
Kleinbäuerliche Besiedlung und die Ausprägung von Haushaltsstrategien am Mount Kenya
Kohler, Thomas
"Kleinbäuerliche Besiedlung und die Ausprägung von Haushaltsstrategien am Mount Kenya" in: Jeanneret F, Wastl-Walter D, Wiesmann U, Schwyn M. editors. 2003. Welt der Alpen - Gebirge der Welt. Ressourcen, Akteure, Perspektiven. Bern: Haupt Verlag, pp. 185-196 Order from: Haupt Verlag
Temporal and Spatial Changes in the Incidence of Agricultural Labourers: A Study in Maharashtra State, India
Kumar, Awanish
The present thesis is an attempt to analyse temporal and spatial changes in the incidence of agricultural wage labour in the state of Maharashtra. It aims, primarily, at analyzing changes in the size of the labour force in agriculture and the distribution of these changes across castes and gender. Conclusions of Master Thesis at Tata Institute of Social Sciences. Download
Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Dongus, Stefan
A survey of agricultural areas combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopholes larvae. Dongus S et al. 2009. Urban agriculture and Anopholes habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Geospatial Health 3(2):189-210. Download
Climate Change and its Impacts on Agriculture: Farmers' Perception and Adaptation Measures: A Case Study of Jagatpur VDC of Chitwan District
Maharjan, Roshna
Climate change is a global problem with local impacts. The poor are hit hardest and are most vulnerable to its impact, as they cannot afford mitigation measures. Poor and marginalized people live on marginalized land, which makes them more vulnerable to disasters brought about by climate change such as floods and landslides. The changes in rainfall patterns and temperature have made agricultural production risky. A large part of Nepal’s population depends on agriculture and therefore even a small change in climatic conditions affects the lives of people to a high extent. Master Thesis at Kathmandu University. Download
Modeling the contribution of pig farming to pollution of the Thachin River
Schaffner, Monika
Rapid growth of the livestock production sector in South-East Asia during recent decades has led to a widespread degradation of ground and surface waters. The Thachin River Basin in Central Thailand serves as a case study for investigating the origins and pathways of nutrient loads produced by intensive pig farming. A mathematical material flow analysis is used to identify key nitrogen flows and the main parameters determining them. Scenarios of the potential for reducing these flows and achieving compliance with current discharge regulations are investigated. The results show that liquid waste discharged from large pig farms and directly discharged waste from small farms are the key nitrogen flows to the river system. The key driving forces are not only the treatment coverage and efficiencies but also the rate of reuse and recycling of the treated product. Paper available at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/l72t1878k2075942 Year of Publication: 2009