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Seasonal epidemiology of ticks and aspects of cowdriosis in N’Dama village cattle in the Central Guinea savannah of Côte d’Ivoire
Knopf, Lea
In the Central Guinea savannah of Côte d’Ivoire, cattle breeding started only 30 years ago. The impact of parasitism on the overall health status and productivity of the trypanotolerant N’Dama cattle in this area is unknown. In close collaboration with national veterinary institutions and local farmers, we studied spectrum, burden and seasonal dynamics of ticks (including aspects of cowdriosis) on N’Dama village cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2002, Vol. 53, Issues 1-2, pp. 21-30 Available online from: ScienceDirect
Epidémiologie moléculaire des premiers isolements de mycobactéries chez l'animal au Tchad
Schelling, Esther
"The first laboratory to culture mycobacteria was established in Chad to confirm the presence of bovine tuberculosis and to describe the distribution of M. tuberculosis complex strains in livestock and humans. Specimens were collected on condemned animal carcasses due to tuberculosis. Spoligotyping and analysis of Variable Numbers Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) have been used on 67 M. bovis strains. The prevalence of tuberculosis-like lesions at the slaughterhouse was 7.3%. More M’bororo than Arab zebus were condemned (p = 0.04), M’bororo carcasses were more often entirely condemned in comparison to a partial condemnation (p ≤ 0.001) and M. bovis was more often isolated from Mbororo carcasses than from Arab zebu (p = 0.004). [...]" "Le premier laboratoire de culture des mycobactéries a été établi au Tchad pour confirmer la présence de la tuberculose bovine chez le bétail et pour évaluer la répartition des souches du complexe Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Les prélèvements ont été réalisés sur des carcasses d’animaux saisis pour cause de tuberculose. Le typage moléculaie par spoligotypie et le typage des VNTR (séquences répétées en nombre variable) ont été réalisés avec 67 souches M. bovis du Tchad. La prévalence de lésions tuberculeuses à l’abattoir était de 7,3%. Davantage de carcasse de zébus M’bororos ont été saisies par rapport aux zébus Arabes (p = 0,04); une saisie totale en comparaison à une saisie partielle a été plus souvent effectuée chez les Mbororos (p ≤ 0,001) et M. bovis a été plus fréquemment isolé chez les zébus Mbororos que chez les Arabes (p = 0,004). [...]" Épidémiologie et Santé Animale 2005, No. 48, pp. 81-91 Available for download from: L'Association pour l'Étude de l'Épidémiologie des Maladies Animales
Human and Animal Health in Nomadic Pastoralist Communities of Chad
Schelling, Esther
PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Switzerland The health of nomadic pastoralists is influenced by factors specific to their way of life. Veterinary services provide vaccination against feared livestock diseases such as anthrax. Agents transmissible between livestock and humans (zoonotic agents) may have an important impact on the health status of pastoralists because they live in close contact to their animals. However, morbidity of nomadic pastoralists in Chad had not been documented and their everyday use of health services was virtually unknown. A research collaboration between veterinary and public health was implemented to evaluate morbidity of nomadic pastoralists and of their animals simultaneously and to test intersectoral pilot-interventions following the concept of “one medicine”.
Species identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria from humans and cattle of Chad
Diguimbaye, Colette
"In Chad, during a study on tuberculosis in humans and cattle, 52 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) strains were isolated. By means of INNO-LiPA, PRA-hsp65 amplification and sequencing of 16S rDNA, NTM species of 25/52 isolates were identified. M. fortuitum complex (8) was the most frequent species, followed by M. nonchromogenicum (4) and M. avium complex (4). PRA method could identify M. fortuitum 3rd variant among isolates derived from cattle specimens. This finding could confirm the existence of farcy in the Chadian cattle population as M. fortuitum 3rd variant and putitative pathogen M. farcinogenes can't be distinguished by the methods used in this study. Half of the NTM isolates could not be specified and we considered them as contaminants from the environment." Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 2006, Vol. 148, No. 5, pp. 251-256 Available to purchase from: Verlag Hans Huber
A model of animal-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia
Zinsstag, Jakob
"We developed a dynamic model of livestock-to-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia. The compartmental model considers transmission within sheep and cattle populations and the transmission to humans as additive components. The model was fitted to demographic and seroprevalence data (Rose Bengal test) from livestock and annually reported new human brucellosis cases in Mongolia for 1991–1999 prior to the onset of a mass livestock-vaccination campaign (S19 Brucella abortus for cattle and Rev1 Brucella melitensis for sheep and goat). The vaccination effect was fitted to livestock- and human-brucellosis data from the first 3 years of the vaccination campaign (2000–2002). Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (assessed by the deviance). The simultaneously fitted sheep–human and cattle–human contact rates show that 90% of human brucellosis was small-ruminant derived. Average effective reproductive ratios for the year 1999 were 1.2 for sheep and 1.7 for cattle." Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2005, Vol. 69, Issues 1-2, pp. 77-95 Available from: Science Direct
Potential of cooperation between human and animal health to strengthen health systems
Zinsstag, Jakob
"The WHO ministerial summit held in Mexico City, Mexico, on Nov 16–20, 2004, recognised the pivotal role of strengthened health systems in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in an equity-effective manner. Its resolutions encourage health systems research to include broad societal dimensions. One extension involves closer interaction between human and animal health, for which the US epidemiologist Calvin Schwabe coined the term “one medicine”, to focus attention on the similarity between human and veterinary health interests. [...]" The Lancet 2005, Vol. 366, Issue 9503, pp. 2142-2145 Available online from: The Lancet Download PDF from: The Lancet
Bovine tuberculosis: an old disease but a new threat to Africa
Ayele, Wuhib Y.
"Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a disease characterised by progressive development of specific granulomatous le-sions or tubercles in lung tissue, lymph nodes or other organs. Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of the disease. Bovine species, including bison and buffaloes, are susceptible to the disease, but nearly all warm-blooded animals can be affected. All species are not equally susceptible to the disease; some are spill-over (end) hosts and others maintenance hosts. In Africa, bovine TB primarily affects cattle; however, infection in other farm and domestic animals, such as sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and cats, is not uncommon. Wild ruminants and carnivores are also affected and are the natural reservoirs of the infectious agent in the wild. Man is also susceptible to the disease, the highest risk groups being individuals with concomitant HIV/AIDS infection. In Africa, human TB is widely known to be caused by M. tuberculosis; however, an unknown proportion of cases are due to M. bovis. This infection in humans is underreported as a result of the diagnostic limitations of many laboratories in distinguishing M. bovis from M. tuberculosis. None of the national reports submitted to the OIE and WHO by African member states mention the importance of M. bovis in human TB cases. Consumption of unpasteurised milk and poorly heat-treated meat and close contact with infected animals represent the main sources of infection for humans. This review attempts to examine the impact of bovine TB on the health of animals and humans." The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2004, Vol. 8, No. 8, pp. 924-937(14) Freely available from: Ingentaconnect
Mapping H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza risk in Southeast Asia
Gilbert, Marius
"...This article analyses the statistical association between the recorded HPAI H5N1 virus presence and a set of five key environmental variables comprising elevation, human population, chicken numbers, duck numbers, and rice cropping intensity for three synchronous epidemic waves in Thailand and Vietnam. A consistent pattern emerges suggesting risk to be associated with duck abundance, human population, and rice cropping intensity in contrast to a relatively low association with chicken numbers..." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 2008, Vol. 105, No. 12, pp. 4769-4774. Available online from: PNAS.org
Improving Small Ruminant Production
Maselli, Daniel
"Livestock production is a key livelihood strategy and a way of life for most smallholders in the Hindukush. Depending on ethnicity, access to land, labor force, and ecological conditions, small to large herds of goats, sheep, cattle and buffalo serve as a primary or secondary source of livelihood. Ongoing deterioration of environmental conditions — frequently due to overgrazing — and the depletion of timber and firewood resources — often linked to demographic and economic pressure both in the highlands and the lowlands—increasingly worsen living conditions. Alternative livelihood strategies and pathways to more sustainable natural resource use are needed. [...]" Mountain Research and Development 2005, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp. 104-108 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Taux sérique de rétinol chez les femmes nomades pastoralistes tchadiennes en relation avec la teneur en rétinol et en carotène dans le lait de leur bétail
Zinsstag, Jakob
"Human serum retinol and livestock milk retinol levels were assessed as part of a study on the health status of Chadian nomadic pastoralists and their livestock in close partnership between Chadian public health and livestock institutions. Of the examined women (n = 99), 43% (95% CI 33 – 54 %) were retinol deficient (levels from 0.35 ?mol/L to 0.7 ?mol/L) and 17% (95% CI 10 - 26 %) severely deficient (Médecine Tropicale 2004, Vol. 64, No. 5, pp. 478-481 Download
Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis
Roth, F.
"Objective: To estimate the economic benefit, cost-effectiveness, and distribution of benefit of improving human health in Mongolia through the control of brucellosis by mass vaccination of livestock. [...] Findings: In a scenario of 52% reduction of brucellosis transmission between animals achieved by mass vaccination, a total of 49 027 DALYs could be averted. Estimated intervention costs were US$ 8.3 million, and the overall benefit was US$ 26.6 million. This results in a net present value of US$ 18.3 million and an average benefit–cost ratio for society of 3.2 (2.27–4.37). If the costs of the intervention were shared between the sectors in proportion to the benefit to each, the public health sector would contribute 11%, which gives a cost-effectiveness of US$ 19.1 per DALY averted (95% confidence interval 5.3–486.8). If private economic gain because of improved human health was included, the health sector should contribute 42% to the intervention costs and the costeffectiveness would decrease to US$ 71.4 per DALY averted. Conclusion: If the costs of vaccination of livestock against brucellosis were allocated to all sectors in proportion to the benefits, the intervention might be profitable and cost effective for the agricultural and health sectors." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003, Vol. 81, Number 12, pp. 867-876 Download PDF from: The World Health Organization
Livestock Diseases and Human Health
Zinsstag, Jakob
"Two decades ago, the U.S. epidemiologist Calvin Schwabe coined a phrase--"the one medicine"--to focus attention on the commonality of human and veterinary health interests.* The underlying concept is traceable to the late 19th century, in contributions of the German pathologist and architect of social medicine Rudolf Virchow. Recent events have brought the relationship between animal and human health into much sharper focus than even public health and veterinary health specialists might have predicted. [...]" >>more Science 2001, Vol. 294. no. 5542, p. 477 Available from: Science Magazine
Improving Sustainable Grazing Management in Mountain Rangelands of the Hindu Kush–Himalaya
Ur-Rahim, Inam
"[...] The combined and participatory approach suggested in this paper describes how a more tangible, quantifiable relationship can be established between individual plant and community level processes. Such an approach, which involves herders in expert assessment and data collection, enables better monitoring and forecasting of those changes in plant community composition that are relevant for livestock husbandry and sustainable resource use. In this study, the highest dry matter production (DMP) was recorded at altitudes between 1200 m (with 1945 kg/ha) and 1600 m (with 1921 kg/ha). In “freely grazed rangeland”—where access is not limited and no manual improvement measures are taken—the proportion of palatable forage species is much lower than in “fenced rangeland,” where access is limited and the stocking rate reduced to one third. Such integrated assessment of rangeland conditions ultimately provides the baseline for evaluating changes in ecosystems over time; it also provides a sound basis for negotiation among stakeholders with different interests." Mountain Research and Development 2004, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp. 124–133 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Calf mortality and parasitism in periurban livestock production in Mali
Wymann, Monica
PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
Migration and Livestock Farming: Competing or Complementary Livelihood Strategies
Schoch, Nadia
The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to the breakdown of a complex economic system and resulted in a huge economic crisis and rising poverty in Kyrgyzstan. As a consequence, predominantly economically motivated migration became an important livelihood strategy to diversify the sources of income. Remittances sent to the remaining relatives have become an essential income source for many households. Besides labour migration, livestock farming with the use of pastures remains important for rural ivelihoods. Though, evidence from research reveals, that on the one hand livestock farming is increasingly financed through remittances. On the other hand, migration leads to absence of work forces on household level. This setting of either complementing of competing livelihood strategies in rural areas of Kyrgyzstan are analysed within this study. The aim of the study is to understand the effects of migration on household organisation and livestock farming. Download