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Assessing Soil Erosion and Conservation in the Loess Area of Faizabad Western Tajikistan
Bühlmann, Erik
Master's Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland Download
Sensing Soil Properties in the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin by means of Reflectance Spectroscopy and GIS
Hett, Conny
Master's Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland This thesis is a proof of method study of the Soil Sensing Approach, a new approach for rapid assessment of soil properties using near-infrared spectroscopy. The study was carried out in a small tests area of ten by ten km in the Upper Ewaso Ng’iro Basin, Kenya. The topical aim was to assess soil chemical properties in relation to land cover/land use. Through application of chemometric models soil carbon and nitrogen were predicted based on their near-infrared reflectance curves. CART classification and regression trees were used for modelling the two properties. It was shown that classification trees did not perform nearly as good on the samples as the regression trees. Finally relationships between land cover/land use and soil carbon and nitrogen were assessed and soil carbon and nitrogen showed very similar results. The good results of the Soil Sensing Approach make its use possible for mapping soil carbon and nitrogen properties using satellite imagery. Download
A World Soils Agenda
Hurni, Hans
Bern, Geographica Bernensia
Sustainable land management – a new approach to soil and water conservation in Ethiopia
Mitiku, Haile
This book suggests following the broader approach of Sustainable Land Management (SLM), which aims at ecological soundness, economic viability and social acceptability, and thus places SWC in a more holistic framework that is closer to farmers’ reality. This, however, requires that soil and water conservation (SWC) experts focus less on searching for standard solutions valid once and for all, and more on engaging in a continuous process of developing and adapting technologies with farmers. The present book was written for future SWC and land management experts in Ethiopia. It is based on results of the country’s Soil Conservation Research Program (SCRP), and the experience of researchers, experts, extension workers and Ethiopian peasants. The book aims to encourage readers to take a more critical look at land problems and responses to them, to ask more critical questions, and not to take standard solutions for granted. Download
Putting soils higher on the international agenda
Hurni, Hans
Soils on the global agenda: The report provides an overview of international actions concerned with sustainable land management, based on contributions from members of the IASUS (International Actions for the Sustainable Use of Soil) network made at the Eurosoil Symposium. It also aims to concretise possible follow-up actions. On the occasion of the ISRIC workshop “World Soils Issues and Sustainable Development” held on 10 March 2006, the creation of a World Soils Council (WSC) was initiated. The report presents in its final chapter the WSC’s proposed vision, objectives, and structure. The report was produced by IASUS, a working group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS), with support from CDE and financing from SDC. This publication is a follow-up of: A World Soils Agenda In: Hans Hurni, Markus Giger, and Konrad Meyer, editors. 2006. Soils on the global agenda. Developing International Mechanisms for Sustainable Land Management. IASUS Working Group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS). Centre for Development and Environment, Bern. pp. 4-15 Download
The IUSS World Soils Agenda
Hurni, Hans
Soils on the global agenda: The report provides an overview of international actions concerned with sustainable land management, based on contributions from members of the IASUS (International Actions for the Sustainable Use of Soil) network made at the Eurosoil Symposium. It also aims to concretise possible follow-up actions. On the occasion of the ISRIC workshop “World Soils Issues and Sustainable Development” held on 10 March 2006, the creation of a World Soils Council (WSC) was initiated. The report presents in its final chapter the WSC’s proposed vision, objectives, and structure. The report was produced by IASUS, a working group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS), with support from CDE and financing from SDC. This publication is a follow-up of: A World Soils Agenda (2002) In: Hans Hurni, Markus Giger, and Konrad Meyer, editors. 2006. Soils on the global agenda. Developing International Mechanisms for Sustainable Land Management. IASUS Working Group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS). Centre for Development and Environment, Bern. pp. 18-25 Download
Impact monitoring in soil and water conservation.
Herweg, Karl
Despite the huge amount of information available on soil and water conservation (SWC), there seems to be a considerable gap in knowledge about the impact of SWC technologies, such as the effectiveness of on-farm technologies in controlling soil erosion, their impact on human and natural resources, cost-benefit ratios, the level of integration into prevailing farming systems, etc. This paper introduces a methodology for impact monitoring and assessment developed by an international expert group over the past years. More than anything else, impact monitoring requires a significant change of mind. This involves looking beyond one’s own profession and even one’s own mandate. The focus of the methodology presented is on sustainable land management, which puts SWC into a wider thematic framework and thus helps to identify a broader range of the side-effects and impacts of SWC activities. In: De Graaf J, Sombatpanit S. (Eds.): Monitoring and Evaluation of Soil Conservation and Watershed Development Projects. World Association of Soil and Water Conservation.
Erosion Damage Mapping: Assessing Current Soil Erosion Damage in Switzerland
Ledermann, Thomas
Advances in GeoEcology 39:263-283
Stations of the soil conservation research programme (SCRP) in Ethiopia
Herweg, Karl
In: Hurni H, Bantider A, Herweg K, Portner B, Veit, H, editors. Landscape Transformation and Sustainable Development in Ethiopia. Background information for a study tour through Ethiopia, 4-20 September 2006. Bern: Centre for Development and Environment, University of Bern.
Soil erosion and conservation in global agriculture
Hurni, Hans
Land-use change is one of the main drivers of many environmental change processes. It influences the basic resources of land use, including the soil. Its impact on soil often occurs so creepingly that land managers hardly contemplate initiating ameliorative or counterbalance measures. Poor land management has degraded vast amounts of land, reduced our ability to produce enough food, and is a major threat to rural livelihoods in many developing countries. To date, there has been no single unifying volume that addresses the multifaceted impacts of land use on soils. This book has responded to this challenge by bringing together renowned academics and policy experts to analyze the patterns, driving factors and proximate causes, and the socioeconomic impacts of soil degradation. Policy measures to prevent irreversible degradation and rehabilitate degraded soils are also identified. In: Braimoh AK, Vlek PLG, editors. Land Use and Soil Resources. Dordrecht, The Netherlands; London, UK: Springer, pp 41–71. Download from: Springer
Sensing Approach for Mapping Soil Properties Using Reflectance Spectrometry
Wolfgramm, Bettina
The soil sensing approach was developed for the rapid assessment of soil quality over large areas. It intends to provide assistance for large area soil surveillance. The approach combines information from soil reflectance measurements, laboratory soil analysis, field and remotely sensed observations. This paper gives a detailed description of field sampling process, building and making use of spectral libraries, and modelling soil conditions for large areas. Moreover, it also provides information on statistical methods and the used statistical programs for the soil sensing approach. Bern, NCCR North-South
Enhanced Decision-Making Based on Local Knowledge
Liniger, Hanspeter
Many types of problems caused by land degradation can be documented worldwide. The main natural resources affected are soils, water, natural vegetation, and wildlife; but cultivated plants are exposed to even greater damage, which poses a threat to food security as well. Soil degradation is one of the most crucial processes of land degradation and environmental change. Over a quarter of the world's agricultural land has been damaged by long-term soil degradation, corresponding to one-tenth of the earth's land surface. Every day land users and soil and water conservation (SWC) specialists evaluate experience and generate know-how related to land management, improvement of soil fertility, and protection of soil resources. Most of this valuable knowledge, however, is not well documented or easily accessible, and comparison of different types of experience is difficult. The World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) has the mission of providing tools that allow SWC specialists to share their valuable knowledge in soil and water management, assist them in their search for appropriate SWC technologies and approaches, and support them in making decisions in the field and at the planning level. Mountain Research and Development 2002, 22(1), pp. 14-18 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Land Use, Soil Degradation and Soil Conservation in the Loess Hills of Central Tajikistan
Wolfgramm, Bettina
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland For further information, please contact the author
On- and Off-site Effectiveness of Soil and Water Conservation in Switzerland
Schneider , Flurina
Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of Swiss Agroscope Reckenholz-Tänikon Research Station ART. Download
Soils on the global agenda
Hurni, Hans
Bern, Geographica Bernensia on behalf of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS)
Priority setting for further action
Hurni, Hans
Soils on the global agenda: The report provides an overview of international actions concerned with sustainable land management, based on contributions from members of the IASUS (International Actions for the Sustainable Use of Soil) network made at the Eurosoil Symposium. It also aims to concretise possible follow-up actions. On the occasion of the ISRIC workshop “World Soils Issues and Sustainable Development” held on 10 March 2006, the creation of a World Soils Council (WSC) was initiated. The report presents in its final chapter the WSC’s proposed vision, objectives, and structure. The report was produced by IASUS, a working group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS), with support from CDE and financing from SDC. This publication is a follow-up of: A World Soils Agenda (2002) In: Hans Hurni, Markus Giger, and Konrad Meyer, editors. 2006. Soils on the global agenda. Developing International Mechanisms for Sustainable Land Management. IASUS Working Group of the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS). Centre for Development and Environment, Bern. pp. 50-62 Download
Part 1: Analysis and policy implications. In: Where the land is greener. Case studies and analysis of soil and water conservation initiatives worldwide
Liniger, Hanspeter
Various land use categories are covered here – cropland, as well as forest and grazing land. The technologies range from terraces to agroforestry systems; from rehabilitation of common pastures to conservation agriculture; from vermiculture to water harvesting. Several are well established successes – others are innovative, relatively unknown and full of promise. The technologies are matched by studies of the ‘approaches’ that have underpinned their development and spread. Some of these approaches are descriptions of projects, but there are also fascinating explanations of how spontaneous development and spread has taken place. The book does not stop with case studies: there are two analytical sections, taking the technologies and approaches in turn. Finally there are policy pointers for decision makers and donors, who are challenged to invest further – to make the land greener. In: Liniger HP, Critchley W, editors. WOCAT
Spatial assessment of erosion and its impact on soil fertility in the Tajik foothills
Wolfgramm, Bettina
"Efficient planning of soil conservation measures requires, first, to understand the impact of soil erosion on soil fertility with regard to local land cover classes; and second, to identify hot spots of soil erosion and bright spots of soil conservation in a spatially explicit manner. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important indicator of soil fertility. The aim of this study was to conduct a spatial assessment of erosion and its impact on SOC for specific land cover classes. Input data consisted of extensive ground truth, a digital elevation model and Landsat 7 imagery from two different seasons. [...] The results show distinctly lower SOC content levels on large parts of the test areas, where annual crop cultivation was dominant in the 1990s and where cultivation has now been abandoned. On the other hand, there are strong indications that afforestations and fruit orchards established in the 1980s have been successful in conserving soil resources." EARSeL eProceedings, Vol. 6, No.1, pp. 12-25 Download