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Common Property Resource Management, Institutional Change and Conflicts in African Floodplain Wetlands
Haller, Tobias
Most contemporary discussions on African development since independence forty years ago emphasize the notion that Africa is still “mal parti”. Many show discontent for what has been achieved in this time, despite that “Africa works” as is suggested by Chabal and Daloz in their widely discussed book (1999). I will focus on the issue of sustainable development in Africa. This will be illustrated by the presentation of a common property resource management research project (on fisheries, pastures, wildlife, water for irrigation, and forests). The question of why the overuse of natural resources and conflicts over resources are occurring in modern day Africa is addressed here. This research project is called “Common Property Institutions and Power Relations: Resource Management, Change and Conflicts in African Floodplain Wetlands”. It focuses on six African floodplain wetlands in semi-arid zones (Internal Niger Delta in Mali, Hadejia-Jama'ara in Northern Nigeria, Logone Floodplain in Northern Cameroon, Pangani Floodplain in Tanzania, Okavango Delta in Botswana and Kafue Flats in Zambia (Haller 2001)) [...]. The African Anthropologist 2002, Vol 9, No.1, pp. 25-35 Available from: African Journals Online
Ohne Sauberkeit keine Gesundheit. Hygiene im Alltag von Dar es Salaam, Tansania
Obrist, Brigit
«Gesundheit» ist ein Zauberwort der Moderne. Es ist ein positives Konzept, das wir mit vielen Bereichen des alltäglichen Lebens in Beziehung setzen, von Umwelt über Ernährung bis hin zu Arbeit , Freizeit und sozialen Beziehungen. Was bedeutet «Gesundheit» jedoch für Menschen, die in einer ganz anderen Umgebung leben, nämlich einer schnell wachsenden afrikanischen Stadt? Tsantsa 2002, 7: 66-76 Download
Struggling for Health in the City
Obrist, Brigit
Bern, Peter Lang Publishing Group
Trees, trust and the state: A comparison of participatory forest management in Pakistan and Tanzania
Shahbaz, Babar
This paper attempts to analyse the trust, power relations and emerging conflicts as state and non-state actors try to adjust to their new roles in the perspective of participatory forest management initiatives in Pakistan and Tanzania. Based on historical and empirical context, we argue that the institutional base responsible for enhancing trust between state and local actors is rather weak in both countries. The major obstacles are that the state actors are not willing to fully devolve power; and the responsibility - as delegated by the state - of newly created institutions demands forest protection rather than defining management rights.
People’s Choice First
Lüthi, Christoph
NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 22 Bern, NCCR North-South
Strengthening policies and institutions to support adaptation to climate variabiliy and change in the drylands of East Africa
Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe
We analysed how policies in Tanzania and Kenya address the strategies of agro-pastoralists for coping with and adapting to climate variability and climate change, based on data from semi-structured household surveys, group discussions, policy documents and other material. Many policies indirectly address climate variability and change by focusing on drought, suggesting that some form of mainstreaming already exists. We show that by integrating the perspective of agro-pastoralists, i.e. the majority of the rural poor, policies and pro-poor adaptation strategies can be strengthened. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the NCCR North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 107-130. Download
Community Based Land Resources Management in Kiverenge Village, Mwanga, Tanzania
Lyamchai, C.
Lyamchai C, Kiteme BP, Mathuva JM, Kingamkono M. (in prep.): Community Based Land Resources Management in Kiverenge Village, Mwanga, Tanzania: The Application of SDA/PRA Methodologies. An ESAPP funded Project 2001-2002.
Medicalization and morality in a weak state
Obrist, Brigit
"Inspired by Foucault, many studies have examined the medicalization of everyday life in Western societies. This paper reconsiders potentials and limitations of this concept in an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, it concentrates on cleanliness, health and water in a lower middle-class neighbourhood. The findings show that women are familiar with professional health development discourses emphasizing cleanliness as a high value linked to bodily and domestic health. These discourses have been diffused in schools, clinics and other institutions during the colonial and socialist period. Women not only refer to these discourses, they try to reproduce them in daily practice and even demand them. This coercive yet voluntary nature of institutionalized discourses points to 'paradoxes of medicalization' also found in Western societies. It acquires, however, different meanings in a weak state like contemporary Tanzania which hardly manages to institutionalize medicalization through professional practice. Under such conditions, women who choose to follow health development discourses suffer a heavier practical, intellectual and emotional burden than those who are less committed. This may at least partly explain why many women assume a pragmatic stance towards the medicalization of everyday life." Anthropology & Medicine 2004, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 43-57 Available for purchase from: Informaworld
The Impact of Demand Factors, Quality of Care and Access to Facilities on Contraceptive Use in Tanzania
Arends-Kuenning, Mary
The low contraceptive prevalence rate and the existence of unmet demand for family planning services present a challenge for parties involved in family planning research in Tanzania. The observed situation has been explained by the demand-side variables such as socioeconomic characteristics and cultural values that maintain the demand for large families. A small, but growing body of research is examining the effect of supply-side factors such as quality of care of family planning services on the demand for contraceptives. This paper analyses the demand and supply factors determining contraceptive use in Tanzania using the Tanzania Service Availability Survey (1996) and the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (1996) data sets. The results show that access to family planning services and quality of care of services are important determinants of contraceptive use in Tanzania even after controlling for demand-side factors. Journal of Biosocial Science 2007, Vol. 39, Issue 1, pp. 1-26 Available from: Cambridge University Press
Quality and comparison of antenatal care in public and private providers in the United Republic of Tanzania
Boller, Christoph
"Objective To compare the quality of public and private first-tier antenatal care services in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, using defined criteria. Methods Structural attributes of quality were assessed through a checklist, and process attributes, including interpersonal and technical aspects, through observation and exit interviews. A total of 16 health care providers, and 166 women in the public and 188 in the private sector, were selected by systematic random sampling for inclusion in the study. Quality was measured against national standards, and an overall score calculated for the different aspects to permit comparison. Findings The results showed that both public and private providers were reasonably good with regard to the structural and interpersonal aspects of quality of care. However, both were poor when it came to technical aspects of quality. For example, guidelines for dispensing prophylactic drugs against anaemia or malaria were not respected, and diagnostic examinations for the assessment of gestation, anaemia, malaria or urine infection were frequently not performed. In all aspects, private providers were significantly better than public ones. Conclusion Approaches to improving quality of care should emerge progressively as a result of regular quality assessments. Changes should be introduced using an incremental approach addressing few improvements at a time, while ensuring participation in, and ownership of, every aspect of the strategy by health personnel, health planners and managers and also the community." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003, Vol. 81, Number 2, pp. 116-122 Available from: The World Health Organization
Urban health in daily practice
Obrist, Brigit
"Health is the core value and ultimate goal of health development, yet we know very little about health conceptions in everyday life. Inspired by investigations into lay health concepts in Europe, our study explores experiences and meanings of health in a strikingly different context, namely, in a low-income neighbourhood of an African city. Grounded in ethnographic research in Dar es Salaam, we introduce the concept of 'health practice' and examine health definitions, explanations, and activities of urban Swahili women. Our findings show that representations of health form a set of experiences, meanings and embodied practice centring on the links between body, mind, and living conditions. We suggest that 'livelihood', 'vulnerability' and 'resilience' best capture women's main concerns of health practice in such a setting. All women face an emotional burden of being exposed to urban afflictions and an intellectual and practical burden of overcoming them, but some meet this challenge more successfully than others do. This approach tips the balance towards a positive view of health that has been neglected in medical anthropology. It also opens new lines of inquiry in urban health research by consequently following a resource orientation that acknowledges women's struggle to stay healthy and directs attention to their agency." Anthropology & Medicine 2003, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 275-290 Available from: informaworld
A Methodological Framework for Incorporating Socio-economic and Socio-political Issues and Dynamics in Forest Health Monitoring, Conservation and, Management in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania
Madoffe, Seif
Madoffe S, Kiteme BP, Wiesmann U, Mvena ZK. 2004. A Methodological Framework for Incorporating Socio-economic and Socio-political Issues and Dynamics in Forest Health Monitoring, Conservation, and Management in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania. Proceedings of the 6th Conference of the African Mountain Association.
Conservation for whose benefit? Challenges and opportunities for management of Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania.
Mbeyale, Gimbage Ernest
The Mkomazi Game Reserve (MGR) in north-eastern Tanzania is a protected area where different social groups are involved in contest for natural resources. Using MGR as a case study, we examine and discuss how the fortress approach to conservation has led to management problems. We present an overview of conflicts between the MGR authorities and communities, analyse strategies used to deal with the situation and discuss the different ideologies involved. On one hand this is a successful story of fortress conservation. There is proof of increasing bird numbers and improvement in vegetation cover. However, this is at the expense of livelihood security of the local population. We recommend alternative conservation pathways that adopt new participatory conservation approaches instead of the fortress approach currently implemented in MGR. In: Galvin M, Haller T, editors. People, Protected Areas and Global Change: Participatory Conservation in Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 3. Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 221-251. Download
Monitoring The Health of Selected Eastern Arc Forests in Tanzania
Madoffe, Seif
The eastern arc mountains (EAMs) are a chain of isolated mountains (534,000 ha) in Kenya and Tanzania surrounded by arid woodlands and influenced by the Indian Ocean. Much of the original forests have been converted into agricultural crops. These mountains are recognized as a globally important ‘hot spot’ for forest biodiversity and are major national, regional and local sources of hydropower, water and wide array of forest-based benefits and agricultural production. In February 2000 we began a 3-year evaluation of forest health, land-use change and information sharing in the EAMs. This paper summarizes the baseline data from eighteen permanent sample plots in the east Usambara’s and nine in Ulugurus. The eastern arc web site was established, continues to expand and contains some detailed information on the project. Information will assist land managers, planners, policy makers, interested communities and individuals in decision-making. African Journal of Ecology 44: 171-177. Download
Urban agriculture and operational mosquito larvae control: mitigating malaria risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Dongus, Stefan
This study describes how simple participatory mapping, GIS and remote sensing applications can enable successful urban malaria control. Dongus S. 2009. Urban agriculture and operational mosquito larvae control: mitigating malaria risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PhD thesis. University of Basel. Download
Common Pool Resource Management
Meroka, Patrick
PhD Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Dongus, Stefan
A survey of agricultural areas combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopholes larvae. Dongus S et al. 2009. Urban agriculture and Anopholes habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Geospatial Health 3(2):189-210. Download
Sexual and Reproductive Resilience of Adolescents in Ghana and Tanzania
Pfeiffer, Constanze
Flyer of research project on "Sexual and reproductive resilience". Download