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“Trickling down or spilling over?”
Mason, Simon
Paper presented at the ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Edinburgh, 28 March to 2 April 2003 This paper focuses on the linkages between international and subnational water conflicts in the Eastern Nile and Syr Daria Basins. It follows the notion of “conflict system”, to conceptualize dynamic linkages between different “water conflict arenas”. The aim of our paper is to categorize possible linkages, describe examples and explore implications for water conflict mitigation, with the goal of a better problem-solving potential. Download
Relationships between Resource Governance and Resource Conflict
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
This paper highlights the relationships between resource rights, governance practices and conflict in Nepal. The discussion is focused on policies, strategies, laws and regulations, and decisions and actual governing practices in natural resources. The good governance framework is used as a conceptual basis to analyse the relationships. This framework is for the purpose of this paper consensus oriented, participatory, guided by the rule of law, effective and efficient, accountable and transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive. Within this framework, the paper examines the role of resource governance in creating or minimising scarcity and conflict in Nepal. It is based on my current research project on ‘livelihood security, environmental security and conflict mitigation’ in Nepal. It highlights power relations, feelings of injustice, mistrust, the intervention of new technologies, contradiction between customary practices and statutory laws as sources of research. Resource conflicts produce both positive and negative consequences and alter existing social relations, as they induce change in resource management regimes, policy process, livelihood strategies, land use patterns, gender relations, power structures, and individual and collective behaviour. This paper also establishes the linkages between resource conflict and the ongoing Maoist insurgency in Nepal. Journal of Legal Pluralism 2004, No. 50, pp. 71-100 Available for purchase from: Journal of Legal Pluralism
La reconstrucción de lo público
Hoffmann, Sabine
La Paz, Muela del Diablo
Sustainable Development and International Cooperation in the Eastern Nile Basin
Amer, Salah El-Din
The following article provides an overview of issues related to international cooperation and water use in the Eastern Nile Basin, thereby introducing the following three papers written from an Ethiopian, Sudanese and Egyptian perspective respectively. Basic environmental and socio-economic data is given. The various national interests and international initiatives in the Nile Basin are introduced. Key areas of consensus between the authors, as well as open questions that still need to be worked on, are elaborated. The article also describes the unique process of how the six authors from three countries worked on this joint publication in the Nile Dialogue Workshop of 2002. Key conclusions are that sustained, non-polemical communication can lead to cooperation, and that cooperation is the cornerstone to sustainable water development. Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 3-14. Available for purchase from: SpringerLink
Ethiopia and the Nile
Arsano, Yacob
PhD Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland This thesis addresses the use and management of the Nile waters from a legal/institutional, security, environmental and economic point of view. On the national level the limited institutional and economic capacity to make use of Ethiopia's waters was highlighted as a key factor, slowing development and minimizing Ethiopia's clout to influence international relations to her advantage. On the international level the downstream's (Egypt and Sudan) holding on to the status quo of historical agreements and the principle of "acquired rights" was identified as a major factor blocking cooperative development. The Nile Basin Initiative, since 1999, gives hope for a more cooperative future. The success of the NBI, however, will only be assured if a legal/institutional framework can be agreed on. The PhD ends with various options to increase cooperation, also on non-water issues. Download
Ethiopia and the Eastern Nile Basin
Arsano, Yacob
Ethiopia is the main source of the Nile River, and the country urgently needs water for irrigation and hydro-electric power development. To-date, however, Ethiopia is the country in the Eastern Nile basin that uses the least amount of water from the Nile run-off. There is no basin-wide agreement on the utilization and management of the water resources of the Nile Basin. Unilateral planning and implementation approaches have hindered the possibilities of cooperation and coordinated development. On the national level, economic and institutional capacities are also limited. Past initiatives as well as the current Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) are outlined regarding how far these dilemmas are dealt with. The paper ends with suggestions on how to deal with open questions and lessons learned from the ongoing NBI process. Aquatic Sciences 2005, (67): pp. 15-27. Available for purchase from: SpringerLink
Property Rights, Conflicts, and Peace
Goetschel, Laurent
In: Heranando de Soto, Francis Cheneval, editors. 2006. Realizing property rights. Zürich, Rüffer&Rub Publishing House, pp. 186-193 Order from: Rüffer&Rub Publishing House
Dangerous Divisions: Irrigation Disputes and Conflict Transformation in the Ferghana Valley
Bichsel, Christine
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland "The present study focuses on irrigation disputes and 'conflict transformation' in Central Asia. It analyses three projects by international and bilateral donors who share common approach to transforming irrgation conflicts in the Ferghana Valley. [...] Three major research foci guide this study. First, it addresses the environment-conflict nexus. It explores the relationship between irrigation and the occurence of inter-group conflict. Second, the thesis examines the prescriptive approach of 'conflict transformation'. It focuses on the norms and values that construe conflict and its mitigation. Third, the research addresses the issue of power. It examines both conflicts and interventions studied for their embeddedness in power relations." For further information, please contact the author
Are we Scorpions? The Role of Upstream-Downstream Dialogue in fostering Cooperation in the Nile Basin
Mason, Simon
Water consumed upstream does not flow downstream. Consequently, upstream–downstream relations along a shared river may entail competitive use or even conflict. What is the role of communication in preventing or transforming such behavior? The present article addresses this question based on lessons learned in 3 Dialogue Workshops carried out between 2002 and 2004 in the Eastern Nile Basin, with participants from Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan. It indicates that the danger of upstream–downstream relations is not primarily “scorpion-like” behavior (damaging an opponent), but rather “ostrich-like” behavior (burying one's head in the sand, ignoring unilateral developments). Dialogue is shown to be a key determinant in rectifying this situation, as it is the basis for trust-building, exchange of information, and development of mutually acceptable management options. Other key factors to be considered are the balance of power between highland–lowland actors and the legal/institutional framework governing their interaction. Mountain Research and Development 2005, 25(2), pp. 115-120 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Resource based conflict framing among the Kereyu in the Upper and Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia
Mulugeta, Allemmaya
This article presents aspects of a research project on so-called «violent resource based conflicts» in pastoral areas. It focuses on the question of how various actors of the main involved parties interpret and «frame» conflicts differently. It is a case study conducted among the Kereyu pastoral community in the upper and middle Awash valley of Ethiopia who relate with other neighbouring groups and share common resources through both violent and non-violent conflicts. Tsantsa 2005, 10: pp. 23-26 Download
The Role of NGOs in Preventing and Managing Conflicts Resulting from Water Resources Development in Ethiopia
Bonzi, Rea
Master's Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland "This thesis deals with the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in preventing and managing conflicts arising from water development projects in Ethiopia. It seeks to find out development organization’s comprehension of a conflict, their perception of their role in a conflict setting and their relationship to other organizations. Besides a descriptive part, the thesis also examined reasons seeking to explain the success or failure of NGOs’ efforts in conflict prevention. [...]" Download Summary
Mitigating Conflicts Over Scarce Water Resources in the Highland-lowland System of Mount Kenya
Wiesmann, Urs
The Mount Kenya region offers a great deal of beautiful scenery and attracts tourists from all over the world. What these tourists may not see, however, is the crucial function of Mount Kenya as a water tower for its footzones and adjoining lowland areas. This function is becoming ever more crucial, as populations in these areas are growing at a rapid pace and new land use systems require far more water. These developments have set the stage for increasing conflicts over water resources; to make things worse, water is becoming ever scarcer, especially in the dry areas of the Laikipia Plateau and the Samburu Plains to the north and west of the mountain. This article summarizes the complex ecological and socioeconomic dynamics prevailing in the highland-Blowland system of Mount Kenya—the Ewaso Ng'iro North Basin—and presents a multilevel strategy for mitigating the emerging conflicts over water resources. Mountain Research and Development 2000, 20(1), pp. 10-15. Order via your university library from: BioOne
Le développement durable et sa gouvernance
Hufty, Marc
Natures Sciences Sociétés 2006, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 163-165 Available for purchase from: EDP Sciences
Frontier Encounters: Indigenous communities and settlers in Asia and Latin America
Geiger, Danilo
Poverty and the maldistribution of land in core areas of developing countries, together with state schemes for the colonization of unruly peripheries, have forced indigenous peoples and settlers into an uneasy co-existence. On the basis of case study material from various Asian and Latin American countries, Frontier Encounters identifies characteristic patterns of interaction between these groups, explores the dynamics of some of the open conflicts that dot the map of the two continents, and situates them in the context of the politics and economics of the “frontier”. Daniel Geiger is a doctoral candidate in Social Anthropology at the University of Luzern, Switzerland. He has lectured on political anthropology and indigenous movements. His research experience includes fieldwork in the Philippines and Indonesia. Under the auspices of the NCCR North-South, he has coordinated a comparative research project on conflicts between indigenous communities and settlers in South and Southeast Asia. Available for purchase from: IWGIA
Land Politics and Conflict in Nepal:
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Land has always been one of the major causes of armed conflict and structural violence in Nepal. Land is also a source of feudal socio-economic structure in the country. Hence, examining land issues from these perspectives is crucially important to initiate fresh debates on the potential contribution of land reform in the transformation process and addressing the problems of landlessness in the changing political context. This is an effort of researchers and practitioners to examine various aspects of land related issues in Nepal. This work particularly focuses on conflict and exclusion of marginalized people in access to and control of land resources and associated power dynamics in Nepal.
The Governance Analytical Framework
Hufty, Marc
The GAF was validated in the NCCR international conference held in Geneva in November 2007. This text presents the tool and is at the disposition of the scientific community. Download
The Critical Issue of Land Ownership
Ayele, Gebre Mariam
NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 11 Bern, NCCR North-South
Ethiopia and the Nile
Arsano, Yacob
Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH Zurich, Switzerland
National and Indigenous Management of Environmental Conflicts in the Savannah Belt of Sudan
Ahmed, Mey Eltayeb
PhD Thesis, University of Khartoum, Sudan For further information, please contact the author
The Transformation of Violent Conflicts in Pastoral Areas of Ethiopia.
Mulugeta, Allemmaya
PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Switzerland For further information, please contact the author
Changing Political Context, New Power Relations and Hydro-Conflict in Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In: Rotberg F, Swain A, editors. Natural Resources Security in South Asia: Nepal's Water. Stockholm: Institute for Security and Development Policy, pp 15-65. Download from: www.silkroadstudies.org
Umweltkonflikte – Katalysatoren für Kooperation?
Ludi, Eva
In: Steinmetz, E (ed.). 2003. Naturschutz - (Aus-)Löser von Konflikten? Dokumentation einer Tagung des Bundesamtes für Naturschutz und der Heinrich Böll Stiftung vom 25. - 27. November 2002 in Berlin. pp. 73-81 Download from: Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Deutschland
Conflict Management Over Water Rights in Ethiopia
Arsano, Yacob
In: Baechler G, Spillmann KR, Suliman M. editors. 2002. Transformation of Resource Conflicts: Approach and Instruments. Bern: Peter Lang, pp 451-476. Order from: Peter Lang Publishing Group
Transformation of Resource Conflicts and the Case of Woito River Valley in Southern Ethiopia
Arsano, Yacob
In: Flury M, Geiser U. 2002. Local Environmental Management in a North-South Perspective. Issues of Participation and Knowledge Management. vdf Hochschulverlag Zurich & IOS Press Amsterdam, pp. 91-108 Order from: vdf Hochschulverlag Zurich
Conflict Transformation
Goetschel, Laurent
In: Chetail V, editor. Lexique Peacebuilding. For more information click here.
Conflict Transformation in Central Asia
Bichsel, Christine
This book provides the first systematic analysis of peace-building in Central Asia for inter-ethnic conflicts over water and land in the Ferghana Valley based on concrete, in-depth and on-site investigation. The core analysis centres on peacebuilding projects in Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan by three international aid agencies – an international NGO, a bilateral governmental donor and a multilateral agency – and the shared approach which the donors developed and used for conflict transformation. Using ethnographic case material, the author critically examines both the theoretical assumptions guiding this approach and its empirical outcomes when put into practice. Building on existing work in conflict transformation and the ethnography of international assistance in Central Asia, the book sheds light on Western attempts to transform the post-socialist societies of Central Asia and provides fresh empirical data on and insights into irrigation practices, social institutions, and state and identity formation in the Ferghana Valley. The book was published by Routledge in its Central Asian Studies series. Order
El triunfo de Evo Morales: início de una nueva institucionalidad o etorno de los conflictos sociales? Búsqueda
de la Fuente, Manuel
In Spanish De la Fuente M. 2007. El triunfo de Evo Morales: início de una nueva institucionalidad o etorno de los conflictos sociales? Búsqueda. Cochabamba: IESE-UMSS, 29, pp 9-35. Download
L’Angola dans la paix: Autoritarisme et reconversions
Péclard, Didier
Politique Africaine 110: 5-120. For further information click here.
Im Südsudan ist der Zensus ein hochpolitisches Unterfangen
Santschi, Martina
Erstmals in der Geschichte des Sudans wird eine Volkszählung durchgeführt, die den gesamten Südsudan sowie grosse Teile des Nordens umfasst. Im Zensus spiegeln sich der Machtkampf zwischen Khartum und dem Süden sowie Rivalitäten innerhalb des Südsudans. NZZ 110, 14.5.2008. Download
Inclusive Land Policy and Human Security in Post-Conflict Situation: A Study of Parsauni and Pratapur VDCs of Nawalparasi District
Shrestha , Lisa
Land is a very strategic socio-economic asset in an agrarian economy where wealth and survival are measured by control of, and access to, land. It is also the source for inequity, power struggle and conflict. This study is thus carried out with an objective to examine the inter-relationship between access to land and human security in post conflict situation. It is found that the policy and power plays a significant role in creating land based inequities. The role of migrant landholders is found to be more significant in the armed conflict than the indigenous groups. The sole reason for armed conflict is found to be the land based inequities and power relation between the large and marginal landholders. However, the real actors are not satisfied with the outcome of the armed conflict as land based inequities are left unaddressed. As a consequence, they feel there are chances of another form of armed conflict. Masters Thesis at Kathmandu University Download
Impacts of armed conflict on mountain biodiversity.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Nepal's armed conflict (1996-2006) has created enormous impact in biodiversity, the economy and society. This paper discusses only the impacts on biodiversity. The main negative impacts documented from the study were: A loss of unique habitats for wildlife within ecosystems once the vegetation for such specialised habitat were destroyed; loss of medicinal plant resources after the forests were used as battlefields; and severe disruption of conservation activities, leading to intensified unsustainable exploitation as law and order was broken down by the armed conflict. In: Mountain Forum Bulletin 9(2): 11-12. Download article from: Mountain Forum
Interrelationship between conflict and federalism in Nepal [in Nepali]
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In Nepali Human Rights Monitor 5(12): 5-12. Download
Security sector reform in Nepal: Challenges and opportunities
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Nepal is in a critical transition from war to peace and is therefore facing several transitional challenges. One of them is transforming the security sector, which has operated within a highly centralized and unitary political system for more than two centuries. When the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) waged an armed insurrection in 1996, the state security system was reshaped to counter the insurgency. Hence, one of the biggest challenges is to transform the counterinsurgency and focus on ensuring that existing security policies, strategies and organizations fit into the changed political context. This chapter argues that the ongoing peace process will not be completed nor will democracy be stabilized without a thorough transformation of the security sector. In: Born H, Schnabel A, editors. Security Sector Reform in Challenging Environments. Geneva: LIT Verlag, pp 165-187. Available for Purchase from: Lit-Verlag
Protected areas and indigenous peoples in Bolivia and Peru: Dilemmas, conflicts, and ways out.
Boillat, Sebastien
Recognition of the limitations of the traditional ‘fortress approach’ to governance of protected areas has led to a new model that seeks to reconcile environmental conservation with human development and promote participation by local populations. Based on a comparative analysis of four case studies in Bolivia and Peru, the present article shows the processes, problems and potentialities that emerge from the inclusion of indigenous peoples in the governance of protected areas. It demonstrates that there are many political, economic, social and cultural obstacles to reconciling conservation with development. [...] In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U.; with an international group of co-editors (eds). Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. University of Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 501-515 Download
Descentralisazon, Movimientos Regionales e Indigenas-Campesinos en Bolivia
de la Fuente, Manuel
Este artículo consta de cinco partes. En las dos primeras presentamos algunos elementos históricos, que están relacionados con los procesos de centralización y descentralización. Procesos que fueron conflictivos, ya que toda redistribución del poder entre niveles de gobierno y entre regiones supone afectar intereses muy concretos. En esta rápida mirada de la historia hemos privilegiado el accionar del Gobierno, de los movimientos regionales y de los movimientos indígena-campesinos. Además, hemos tratado de colocar este accionar al interior del “modelo” de desarrollo que estaba vigente en cada momento histórico. Texto publicado en RESTREPO, D. (editor), Historias de descentralización: transformación del régimen político y cambio en el modelo de desarrollo. América Latina, Europa y Estados Unidos, Bogota: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, 2006. Download
Livelihoods Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In this book, the basic causes of livelihood insecurity and social tension and conflict in Nepal are documented and analysed and possible ways of addressing these challenges envisioned. We do not claim that this book gives a comprehensive framework for addressing all the challenge this country is facing, but we firmly believe that it will contribute to a deeper understanding of the livelihood complexity of poor people and elucidate potential ways to enhance their livelihood security and contribute to solving social conflict in Nepal. Download
Female Sex Workers in Kathmandu: Livelihood Assets and their Vulnerability
Joshi, Madan Raj
This study attempts to explore the livelihoods of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in Kathmandu. Particularly, the study examines the socio-economic background, motivational factors, social perception, livelihood assets and vulnerability context of FSWs’ livelihoods. It is found that FSWs are quite young as well as uneducated and victimized by domestic violence and sexual harassment. The overwhelming majority of FSWs are migrants. They come from a variety of castes and ethnic backgrounds and the majority is divorced or separated. Motivational factors of the FSWs are complex and interconnected. Together with poverty, political conflict, unsuccessful conjugal life, domestic violence and sexual harassment have led many women into sex trade. Sex trade is regarded as social evil and societal perception is quite negative towards FSWs and their profession. Master Thesis at Tribhuvan University. Download
The post-conflict Trojan horse: Upsurge of urban crimes as a challenge to state building
Ghimire, Safal
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S. (eds). The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu, South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 211-239. The discussion in this chapter assesses, interprets and analyses the syndromes of urban crime as one of the post-conflict challenges for state building. It eyes upon the issues of crime from the angle of post-conflict security. The chapter gives attention to the increasing bureau-political tensions, and by the use of delineating the functions and malfunctions of police administration also to the loopholes to be corrected as well as the strengths to be accelerated. Download
Governing violence in the pastoralist space:
Mulugeta, Allemmaya
Africa Focus 21(2):71-87. Download
Civilian Peacebuilding: Peace by Bureaucratic Means?
Goetschel, Laurent
Conflict, Security and Development 9(1):55-73. Order from: Informaworld.
Chapter 1: Introduction
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
This book looks at livelihood insecurity and social tension in Nepalese society. Conceptual links between livelihood insecurity, social tension and conflict in Nepal have seldom been made. Therefore, we examine this relationship from different perspectives. Nepalese experts, campaigners, academic and non-academic scholars engaged in the fields of public policy analysis, food rights and globalisation, livelihoods, conflict transformation and social change were invited to contribute their views and analysis. Their contributions provide the reader with a wide range of perspectives on livelihood insecurity and social conflict. Another aim of the book is to test the explanatory power of the livelihood approaches and to enrich the livelihood perspective by constructive and evidence-based criticism. In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: RCO South Asia, NCCR North-South, pp 1-7. Download
Preventing and Resolving Water Use Conflicts in the Mount Kenya Highland–Lowland System through Water Users' Associations
Kiteme, Boniface
"In recent decades, the Mount Kenya highland–lowland system, which includes the Ewaso Ngiro North Basin, has experienced complex ecological and socioeconomic dynamics. These are reflected in changing land use systems and practices as well as in a rapidly growing human population, especially in the footzones and adjacent lowlands. These changes have exerted unremitting pressure on water resources, especially because the demand for water by different user groups has continued to grow, against the backdrop of expensive alternative sources (rainwater and groundwater harvesting) and increasingly dwindling river water resources. As each of the user groups moves to make substantial claims to available river water, competition for the resource becomes even sharper, thus setting the stage for conflicts related to scarcity that intensify during the dry season, at times resulting in fatal physical conflicts among different user groups in the basin, especially between upstream and downstream users. Different approaches have been used to address these scarcity-related conflicts. The present article discusses Water Users' Associations as one of the most effective initiatives launched to address the problem of water use conflicts in the basin in the recent past." Mountain Research and Development 2002, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp. 332-337 Available from: BioOne
Effect of an armed conflict on human resources and health systems in Côte d'Ivoire
Betsi, Alain Nicolas
"In September 2002, an armed conflict erupted in Côte d'Ivoire which has since divided the country in the government-held south and the remaining territory controlled by the 'Forces Armées des Forces Nouvelles' (FAFN). There is concern that conflict-related population movements, breakdown of health systems and food insecurity could significantly increase the incidence of HIV infections and other sexually-transmitted infections, and hence jeopardize the country's ability to cope with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Our objective was to assess and quantify the effect this conflict had on human resources and health systems that provide the backbone for prevention, treatment and care associated with HIV/AIDS. We obtained data through a questionnaire survey targeted at key informants in 24 urban settings in central, north and west Côte d'Ivoire and reviewed relevant Ministry of Health (MoH) records. We found significant reductions of health staff in the public and private sector along with a collapse of the health system and other public infrastructures, interruption of condom distribution and lack of antiretrovirals. On the other hand, there was a significant increase of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), some of which claim a partial involvement in the combat with HIV/AIDS. The analysis shows the need that these NGOs, in concert with regional and international organizations and United Nations agencies, carry forward HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts, which ought to be continued through the post-conflict stage and then expanded to comprehensive preventive care, particularly antiretroviral treatment." AIDS Care 2006, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 356-365 Available to purchase from: Informaworld
Intervention und Mediation in Konflikten
Goetschel, Laurent
In: Sara Zwahlen, Wolfgang Lienemann, editors. 2006. Kollektive Gewalt. Bern, Peter Lang, pp. 87-101 Order from: Peter Lang Publishing Group
NGOs in Conflict Prevention: Experiences from the Water Sector in Ethiopia
Bonzi, Rea
While development cooperation can cause or exacerbate conflicts, withholding aid is not the solution. The issue is how to provide aid in a manner that prevents conflict, so as to achieve sustainable peace. This Practical Note examines how NGOs have prevented and managed conflicts arising from water projects in Ethiopia. Development in Practice 2006, 16(2) Available from: Development in Practice
Resource governance and livelihood concerns: Park-people conflict in the Eastern Terai of Nepal.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
Nepal is known as one of the world’s most conservation-friendly countries, with more than 18% of its total area as protected areas. However, because of the top-down, bureaucratically oriented, exclusionary governance systems practised in the protected areas, there is tension between park authorities and local people that ultimately causes livelihood insecurities. Most of the sufferers from the poor conservation governing systems in Nepal are poor, marginalised and indigenous people. As indigenous people are the victims of protected area management systems, an intense debate on the property rights and prior rights of indigenous people has emerged. To shed light on this debate, the author has employed the conceptual framework of legal pluralism, thereby providing better understanding of the conflict between the customary rights exercised by the indigenous communities and the formal legal arrangements of the state. In: Geiser U, Rist S, editors. Decentralisation Meets Local Complexity: Local Struggles, State Decentralisation and Acces to Natural Resources in South Asia and Latin America. Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp 217-248. Download
Environmental stress and demographic change in Nepal
Matthew, Richard
"In a report of the Environmental Change and Security Program, Richard Matthew and Bishnu Raj Upreti review the broad dynamics of Nepal’s current civil conflict and argue that environmental stress and population factors have played significant roles in creating the underlying conditions for acute insecurity and instability. Through a brief case study of the Koshi Tappu Wetland area, the authors show that this situation is evident not just in the Maoist strongholds of western Nepal, but even in remote areas of the east, thus encircling the capital region." Environmental Change and Security Program Report 2005, No. 11, pp. 29-39 Download PDF from: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
Mountain tourism in Nepal:
Upadhaya, P.K.
The widespread involvement of local people in mountain tourism is not only mandatory for the comprehensive development of mountain tourism, but also for the fulfillment of the livelihoods related inevitable needs of mountain people as key local stakeholders. The post-conflict Nepal after the end of a decade long (1996-2006) violent conflict is passing through the fragile period of transition. The local communities' participation is increasingly important to prevent their discontent and frustration, and, if not fulfilled, can further induce the possibility of the recurrence of any kind of unwarranted conflict in Nepal. A sincere review on existing mountain tourism related policies and regulation and molding these measures to facilitate local people's participation will be justifiable for the sustainable development of mountain tourism in Nepal. Order from Mountain Forum
Land, Class, Ethnicity: Permutations of Environmental Conflicts in Two Districts of Assam
Barbora, Sanjay
PhD Thesis, North Eastern Hill University, India For further information please contact the author
Dialogue Workshop Methodology
Mason, Simon
NCCR North-South Dialogue Series Bern, NCCR North-South
Proliferation of small arms and challenges to post-conflict state building
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S. (eds). The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu, South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 241-257. Download
Gender Relevance in Environmental Conflicts
Fleischli, Susanne
"The present study attempts to determine the significance of gender in environmental conflicts and to trace how considerations of gender may contribute to the management of environmental conflicts. These issues are examined by applying gender analysis to the specific case of the Cauvery River dispute in South India. The results show that gender does determine the way people are affected by an environmental conflict, and the way they are involved in the conflict management process. Consideration of gender may contribute to improved management of environmental conflicts by promoting the involvement of all stakeholders, including women, who are often marginalized in conflict management." "Gender Relevance in Environmental Conflicts: A Gender Analysis of the Cauvery Dispute in South India" in: Premchander S, Müller C, editors. 2006. Gender and Sustainable Development: Case Studies from NCCR North-South. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, Bern: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 189-205. Download
Traditional ecological knowledge, land use and ecosystem diversity in the Tunari National Park (Bolivia)
Boillat, Sebastien
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland This thesis has the overall goal of contributing to the development of the emerging approach of “nature-society hybrids” by setting the fundaments for a dialogue between the needs of biodiversity conservation and the needs and claims of indigenous and traditional people. It is based on the assumption that indigenous and traditional people may not be conservationists “by default”, because the concept of biodiversity conservation has emerged from a concern of modern science and global policy in the developed world that they do not share necessarily. Nevertheless, indigenous communities may have traditional land use practices that are at the same time deeply rooted in their traditional knowledge and specific cultural worldview, and highly relevant for the conservation of biodiversity. The main objective of the thesis was to analyze the links between traditional ecological knowledge, land use and the diversity of ecosystems, as a basis for the promotion of sustainable development, understood as results emerging from the dialogue between scientific and traditional ecological knowledge. Download (9.5 MB)
Briefing: Counting ‘New Sudan’
Santschi, Martina
Between 22 April and 6 May 2008, Sudan’s fifth population and housing census was conducted in both North and South Sudan. Because it will have a decisive impact on future power and wealth sharing in Sudan, the census has been highly contested, and its outcome is likely to be controversial. This briefing argues that the hotly contested census not only highlighted existing tensions between the North and the South on topics such as resources, power sharing, and identity but also intensified competition among Southern Sudanese political actors. African Affairsy 107:631-640 Order from: African Affairs
A decade of armed conflict and livelihood insecurity in Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
This chapter looks at the different sources of the decade-long armed conflict in Nepal and their interrelationship with livelihood insecurity. The complexity and interwovenness of the different causes is highlighted and their collective impact on the livelihoods of the poor and marginalised people examined. In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: South Asia Coordination Office, pp 9-47. Download
Pastoral Conflict and Resource Management in Ethiopia's Somali Region
Hagmann, Tobias
PhD Thesis, University of Lausanne, Switzerland For further information, please contact the author
Violencia urbana y recuperación de espacios públicos. El caso del AMSS
Baires, Sonia
In Spanish In: V.V. Aportes para la convivencia y la seguridad ciudadana. UNDP. San Salvador C.A. Download
Effect of conflict on water resources in Nepal [in Nepali]
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In Nepali In: Hamro Sampada (Our Heritage) 8(11):1-3. Download
Transforming Environmental and Natural Resource Use Conflicts
Mason, Simon
In: Steininger K, Cogoy M, editors. The Economics Of Global Environmental Change: International Cooperation for Sustainability. Edward Elgar. Order from: Edward Elgar
Double-Edged Hydropolitics on the Nile
Luzi, Samuel
This thesis focuses on domestic processes of water policy making in Egypt and Ethiopia in the context of transboundary conflict and cooperation in the Nile Basin. It presents results at two different levels. First, the water sectors of Egypt and Ethiopia are analyzed with regard to their capacity to jointly design and implement effective and sustainable strategy for transboundary river development. Second, the study produces general insights regarding the nature of transboundary river conflicts and the challenges of conflict mitigation. PhD Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) Zurich, Switzerland For further information please contact the author
Intercambio desigual y complejos urbanos binacionales en la frontera dominicana con Haití
Dilla, Haroldo
"La frontera dominico-haitiana está marcada por profundas asimetrías y el predominio de una relación de intercambio desigual que supone la transferencia de valores desde Haití a República Dominicana. Las relaciones transfronterizas resumen esta contradictoria relación, pero al mismo tiempo constituyen la única forma de supervivencia para más de medio millón de haitianos que habitan la región. Este artículo discute la historia de esta relación y sus tendencias actuales, incluyendo la formación de regiones económicas y complejos urbanos binacionales. La debilidad de las políticas públicas de regulación y la agresiva acción de los actores del mercado generan un escenario muy contradictorio que pudiera conducir a conflictos por el uso de los recursos compartidos, la explotación de la fuerza de trabajo haitiana y la agitación de posiciones nacionalistas." "The Dominican/Haitian border is signed by profound asymmetries and the predominance of a relation of uneven exchange in benefit of Dominican Republic. Transborder relations summary this contradictory relation, but at the same time constitute the only form of survival for more than half million of Haitians that inhabit the region. This article discusses the history of this relation and its present tendencies, including the formation of economic regions and urban binational systems. The weakness of regulatory public policies and the aggressive action of the market generate a very contradictory setting that could lead to conflicts by the use of shared natural resources, the exploitation of the Haitian labour force, and the agitation of nationalist positions." Revista Estudios Fronterizos 2004, Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 35-58 Download from: Revista Estudios Fronterizos
Assessing and Managing Scarce Tropical Mountain Water Resources
Liniger, Hanspeter
The present article documents increasing water abstraction and the difficulties in establishing limits for low flows such as the Q80 value (flow available on 80% of the days per year). The article also presents the role of Water Users' Associations (WUAs) in mitigating water conflicts related to over-abstraction. Evaluation of the activities of 13 WUAs showed that they solved 45 of 52 conflicts. WUAs are also involved in activities such as environmental education, awareness creation, improved irrigation practices, afforestation, and regulating water. The recent restructuring of the government ministry resulted in a formalized role for WUAs. Long-term data on availability, abstraction, and use of water are needed to mitigate water conflicts within and between WUAs, negotiate water allocation, and establish allocation thresholds. Mountain Research and Development 2005, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp. 163–173 Order via your university library from: BioOne
Common Pool Resource Management
Meroka, Patrick
PhD Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Autochthony, natural resource management and conflicting rights in West Africa.
Fokou, Gilbert
Focusing on pastoralism and access to land, this article aims to demonstrate that management institutions are eroded in a context of resource scarcity, and that certain groups build discourse and strategies on fuzzy notions of nationhood or identity in order to exclude other users. In this process, the notion of autochthony appears to be an ideological tool in the hands of native people to express their social malaise and difficulties in sustaining their livelihoods in a context of global development. The article concludes that in a context of ‘presence-absence’ of the state, negotiations between various stakeholders at different levels could foster sustainable development. In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U, editors; with an international group of co-editors. Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Vol. 5. Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp 61-76. Download
Food Insecurity, conflict and livelihood threats in Nepal
Adhikari , Jaganath
This chapter examines the food security situation in Nepal and the impact of the recent armed conflict on the food security situation. It argues that food security is understood in different ways and that definitions have changed over time, as these definitions are influenced by different factors – both subjective and objective, and domestic and international. Based on the analysis, some recommendations are made as to how to improve the food security situation in times of conflict, during normal times and in the context of globalisation. In: Upreti BR, Müller-Böker U, editors. Livelihood Insecurity and Social Conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: South Asia Coordination Office, pp 73-130. Download
The Remake of a State: Post Conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
State building is a highly debated topic these days, whether referring to war-torn Iraq, conflict-ridden Afghanistan, or any number of other countries facing or recovering from acute instability. Questions of physical reconstruction and socio-economic transformation are especially crucial. The issue of state building has recently gained in importance in South Asia, particularly in the aftermath of conflicts in Sri Lanka and Nepal. The Remake of a State presents expert analysis, conceptual frameworks, and case studies relevant to sustainable state building in Nepal. Download book (3 MB)
Student Workshop Proceedings on Peace-Building in Nepal
Ghimire, Safal
The document contains the results of discussions held during a visit to Nepal by Harvard University students, co-hosted by the NCCR North-South and Kathmandu University. Download pdf
Commentary - Save Darfur: A Movement and its Discontents
Lanz, David
African Affairs 108 (433): 1-9. Order from oxfordjournal.org
Reconstruction and development in post-conflict Nepal
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
In: Upreti BR, Sharma SR, Pyakuryal KN, Ghimire S. (eds). The Remake of a State: Post-conflict Challenges and State Building in Nepal. Kathmandu, South Asia Regional Coordination Office of the Swiss National Centere of Competence in Research (NCCR North-South) and Human and Natural Ressources Studies Centre (HNRSC), pp. 129-149. The main objective of this chapter is to initiate a debate on the various dimensions of post-conflict development and reconstruction as integral components of state building and strengthening democracy and achieving durable and just peace. This chapter attempts to answer the questions: what are the key issues and elements of post-conflict development? How can development contribute to state-building? Download
Les conflits liés aux ressources naturelles
Goetschel, Laurent
"Laurent Goetschel et Didier Péclard rendent compte, dans leur contribution, des enseignements qu’ils ont pu tirer d’un projet individuel de recherche mené par la Fondation suisse pour la paix, projet qui s’inscrit dans un programme national de recherche intitulé NCCR North-South – Research Partnerships for Mitigating Syndromes of Global Change. Selon ces auteurs, la portée heuristique du lien de causalité supposé direct entre la diminution des ressources naturelles et la survenance de conflits violents doit être nuancée. Il y a en effet d’autres facteurs à prendre en compte, notamment historique, politique et économique, pour expliquer les conflits." Annuaire suisse de politique de développement 2006, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 95-106 Order from: Institut universitaire d'études du développement
Resistance Movements in Conflict Transformation and Social Change.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj
The April movement of 2006 has fundamentally questioned the feudalistic, centralized and exclusionary political system presided over by the monarchy in Nepal. It has also paved the way for a broader socio-political transformation and the ushering of a federal republic structure of the state. Based on the experiences of the 19-day-long people's peaceful resistance movement, it is argued that the conventional concept of civil society needs to be redefined based on the potential of civil movement in changing the political system and shaping the future of the nation-state. The author concludes that non-violent resistance movement has a great prospect of settling conflict and building peace. In: Pyakuryal KN, Upreti BR, Sharma SR, editors. Nepal: Transition to Transformation. Kathmandu: HNRSC, NCCR North-South, pp. 15-48. Download
La violence collective en Bolivie
de la Fuente, Manuel
De la Fuente M. 2008. La violence collective en Bolivie. In: Corten A (dir.) La violence dans l'imaginaire latino-américain. Karthala/Presse de l'université du Québec, pp. 105-116. Download