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La reconstrucción de lo público
Hoffmann, Sabine
La Paz, Muela del Diablo
“No somos juguete de nadie…”
Orozco Ramírez, Shirly
“We are Nobody’s Plaything…” Decentralization, Social Movements and Natural Resources. Case Studies from Bolivia La Paz, Plural Editores
Urban Environment, Spatial Fragmentation and Social Segration in Latin America
Bolay, Jean-Claude
To ‘‘review the urban question’’ in terms of sustainable development, the premise is formulated that improving infrastructures, equipment and services to preserve the natural and built urban environment is costly and generates expenses of all kinds—at economic and social levels. Without the introduction of equalisation mechanisms, these expenses will increase inequalities between different parts of the urban population... Habitat International 2005, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp. 627-645 Available online from: Science Direct
Hacia una (re)conceptualización de ciudadanía
Hoffmann, Sabine
Este artículo presenta un esquema analítico de la ciudadanía, el mismo que comprende diferentes dimensiones interrelacionadas. Partiendo de las dimensiones “status versus práctica”, “lo privado versus lo público” y “espacio público” se busca conceptualizar la noción de la participación ciudadana en los espacios públicos. T'inkazos - Revista Boliviana de Ciencias Sociales 2005, No. 18, pp. 81-91 Download
Moving from sustainable management to sustainable governance of natural resources
Rist, Stephan
"The present paper discusses a conceptual, methodological and practical framework within which the limitations of the conventional notion of natural resource management (NRM) can be overcome. NRM is understood as the application of scientific ecological knowledge to resource management. By including a consideration of the normative imperatives that arise from scientific ecological knowledge and submitting them to public scrutiny, ‘sustainable management of natural resources’ can be recontextualised as ‘sustainable governance of natural resources’. This in turn makes it possible to place the politically neutralising discourse of ‘management’ in a space for wider societal debate, in which the different actors involved can deliberate and negotiate the norms, rules and power relations related to natural resource use and sustainable development. [...]" Journal of Rural Studies 2007, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp. 23-37 Available from: ScienceDirect
The Clean Development Mechanism
Lüthi, Christoph
Master's Thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland Master's thesis on the current Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and its effect on promotion of sustainable environmental sanitation improvements at decentralised level. The transaction costs and risks associated with the CDM have shown to favour large centralised projects. Though many decentralised projects contribute significantly to increasing sustainable development, they cannot compete with large centralised projects on emission reductions at lowest cost. The study assesses the viability of selected case studies and suggests approaches to enhance decentralised CDM projects. Download
Social Learning Towards a Sustainable World
Wals (editor), Arjen E. J.
Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen
Características sociales, económicas y culturales que influyen en la adopción de métodos de innovación
Camargo López, Carmen Lucila
Master's Thesis, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Bolivia Concretamente se realizo un estudio acerca de las características sociales, económicas y culturales, que influyen en la difusión y adopción de la innovación SODIS en familias de distritos de Cochabamba, Potosí, Oruro y Santa Cruz. Download
Décentralisation participative et ethnicisation en Bolivie, 1994-2005
Lacroix, Laurent
In: CESU [Centro de estudios universitarios superiores], CIDES [Postgrado multidisciplinario en ciencias del desarrollo], IFEA [Instituto francés de estudios andinos] , IRD [Institut de recherche pour le développement], Gobernabilidad y gobernanza de los territorios en América Latina, Cochabamba / La Paz: 94-118. For further information, please contact the author.
Intégration de la population dans les mesures de protection
Hufty, Marc
"La mise en place d’aires protégées est un instrument essentiel pour la conservation de la diversité biologique. Mais elle ne peut aboutir que si les mesures de protection tiennent compte des besoins de la population locale." Hotspot 2006, No. 14, p. 11 Download PDF from: Swiss Academy of Science
Le soja en Amérique du Sud ou le cauchemar de Humboldt
Hufty, Marc
"En apparence, la culture du soja est une chance pour l’Argentine, la Bolivie, le Brésil et le Paraguay. Elle apporte à ces pays une manne financière bienvenue. Mais ses conséquences pour la forêt, le sol, la biodiversité, l’eau et - surtout - les populations locales rendent cette réussite économique dérisoire. Quelques mouvements d’opposition tentent de faire entendre leur voix, mais ils restent démunis face à la demande mondiale de soja." La Revue Durable 2006, No. 20, pp. 46-47 Available from: LaRevueDurable
¿A dónde va Bolivia?
Hufty, Marc
La Paz: Plural Editores, NCCR North-South
“It was hard to come to mutual understanding…” – The multidimensionality of social learning processes concerned with sustainable natural resource use in India, Africa and Latin America
Rist, Stephan
Sustainable natural resource use requires that multiple actors reassess their situation in a systemic perspective. This can be conceptualised as a social learning process between actors from rural communities and the experts from outside organisations. A specifically designed workshop provided the background for evaluating the potentials and constraints of intensified social learning processes. Case studies in rural communities in India, Bolivia, Peru and Mali showed that changes in the narratives of the participants of the workshop followed a similar temporal sequence relatively independently from their specific contexts. Social learning processes were found to be more likely to be successful if they 1) opened new space for communicative action, allowing for an intersubjective re-definition of the present situation, 2) contributed to rebalance the relationships between social capital and social, emotional and cognitive competencies within and between local and external actors. Journal of Systemic Practice and Action Research 19(3):219-237. Download from: SpringerLink
Social learning processes and sustainable development.
Rist, Stephan
In: Wals A, editor. Social learning towards a sustainable world. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, pp. 229-244.
Struggling “Ontological Communities”: The Transformation of Conservationists’ and Peasants’ Discourses in the Tunari National Park in Bolivia
Boillat, Sebastien
In: Haller T, Galvin M, editors. People, Protected Areas and Global Change. Perspectives of the NCCR North-South Nro.3. P. 31-73 Download
Einführung zu aktueller Situation in Bolivien
Rist, Stephan
In: Hüttermann E. Ich bin... Lebensgeschichten aus Bolivien
El triunfo de Evo Morales: início de una nueva institucionalidad o etorno de los conflictos sociales? Búsqueda
de la Fuente, Manuel
In Spanish De la Fuente M. 2007. El triunfo de Evo Morales: início de una nueva institucionalidad o etorno de los conflictos sociales? Búsqueda. Cochabamba: IESE-UMSS, 29, pp 9-35. Download
Risk perception, risk management and vulnerability to landslides in the hill-slopes in the city of La Paz, Bolivia
Nathan, Fabien, Nathan, Fabien
The article begins by describing the difficult living conditions of many people in the hill slopes (laderas) of La Paz, Bolivia, demonstrating that they are exposed to a combination of natural and social hazards.1 It shows that residents, community leaders and city planners tend to underestimate or deny risk, with important consequences for risk management, such as a failure to raise risk awareness. The article then proposes some hypotheses to explain risk perceptions in La Paz, discarding the usual single-approach interpretations and suggesting instead more nuanced theoretical explanations to account for why people build their homes in such hazardous environments. In: Disasters, 32/3, Autumn 2008. Download
Protected areas and indigenous peoples in Bolivia and Peru: Dilemmas, conflicts, and ways out.
Boillat, Sebastien
Recognition of the limitations of the traditional ‘fortress approach’ to governance of protected areas has led to a new model that seeks to reconcile environmental conservation with human development and promote participation by local populations. Based on a comparative analysis of four case studies in Bolivia and Peru, the present article shows the processes, problems and potentialities that emerge from the inclusion of indigenous peoples in the governance of protected areas. It demonstrates that there are many political, economic, social and cultural obstacles to reconciling conservation with development. [...] In: Hurni H, Wiesmann U.; with an international group of co-editors (eds). Global Change and Sustainable Development: A Synthesis of Regional Experiences from Research Partnerships. University of Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia, pp. 501-515 Download
Descentralisazon, Movimientos Regionales e Indigenas-Campesinos en Bolivia
de la Fuente, Manuel
Este artículo consta de cinco partes. En las dos primeras presentamos algunos elementos históricos, que están relacionados con los procesos de centralización y descentralización. Procesos que fueron conflictivos, ya que toda redistribución del poder entre niveles de gobierno y entre regiones supone afectar intereses muy concretos. En esta rápida mirada de la historia hemos privilegiado el accionar del Gobierno, de los movimientos regionales y de los movimientos indígena-campesinos. Además, hemos tratado de colocar este accionar al interior del “modelo” de desarrollo que estaba vigente en cada momento histórico. Texto publicado en RESTREPO, D. (editor), Historias de descentralización: transformación del régimen político y cambio en el modelo de desarrollo. América Latina, Europa y Estados Unidos, Bogota: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, 2006. Download
Researchers' roles in knowledge co-production: Experience from sustainability research in Kenya, Switzerland, Bolivia and Nepal
Pohl, Christian
Co-production of knowledge between academic and non-academic communities is a prerequisite for research aiming at more sustainable development paths. Sustainability researchers face three challenges in such co-production: (a) addressing power relations; (b) interrelating different perspectives on the issues at stake; and (c) promoting a previously negotiated orientation towards sustainable development. A systematic comparison of four sustainability research projects in Kenya (vulnerability to drought), Switzerland (soil protection), Bolivia and Nepal (conservation vs. development) shows how the researchers intuitively adopted three different roles to face these challenges: the roles of reflective scientist, intermediary, and facilitator of a joint learning process. From this systematized and iterative self-reflection on the roles that a researcher can assume in the indeterminate social space where knowledge is co-produced, we draw conclusions regarding training. Science and Public Policy 37(4):267-281. DOI: 10.3152/030234210X496628
The MDGs in Bolivia: Poverty Reduction in a Post-neoliberal Area
Rist, Stephan
NCCR North-South Dialogue, No. 43 Bern, NCCR North-South Download
Distribution and Transmission of Medicinal Plant Knowledge in the Andean Highlands
Mathez-Stiefel, Sarah-Lan
This paper presents a study of patterns in the distribution and transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in rural Andean communities in Peru and Bolivia. Interviews and freelisting exercises were conducted with 18 households at each study site. The amount of medicinal plant knowledge of households was compared in relation to their socioeconomic characteristics. Cluster analysis was applied to identify households that possessed similar knowledge. The different modes of knowledge transmission were also assessed. Our study shows that while the amount of plant knowledge is determined by individual motivation and experience, the type of knowledge is influenced by the community of residence, age, migratory activity, and market integration. Plant knowledge was equally transmitted vertically and horizontally, which indicates that it is first acquired within the family but then undergoes transformations as a result of subsequent contacts with other knowledge sources, including age peers. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine doi:10.1155/2012/959285 Download
Can Andean medicine coexist with biomedical healthcare? A comparison of two rural communities in Peru and Bolivia
Mathez-Stiefel, Sarah-Lan
This paper presents a study of patterns in the distribution and transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in rural Andean communities in Peru and Bolivia. Interviews and freelisting exercises were conducted with 18 households at each study site. The amount of medicinal plant knowledge of households was compared in relation to their socioeconomic characteristics. Cluster analysis was applied to identify households that possessed similar knowledge. The different modes of knowledge transmission were also assessed. Our study shows that while the amount of plant knowledge is determined by individual motivation and experience, the type of knowledge is influenced by the community of residence, age, migratory activity, and market integration. Plant knowledge was equally transmitted vertically and horizontally, which indicates that it is first acquired within the family but then undergoes transformations as a result of subsequent contacts with other knowledge sources, including age peers. Mathez-Stiefel SL, Vandebroek I, Rist S. 2012. Can Andean medicine coexist with biomedical healthcare? A comparison of two rural communities in Peru and Bolivia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 8:26. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-8-26
This article is open access at http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/8/1/26
Chaco boliviano paraguayo. Desafíos en perspectiva transfronteriza
Bazoberry , Chali O.
La Paz, Bolivia: Instituto para el Desarrollo Rural de Sud-américa (IPDRS).
The Role of Social Learning Processes in the Emergence and Development of Aymara Land Use Systems
Rist, Stephan
"A typical traditional Andean land-use system was analyzed as the outcome of long-term social learning processes. From this perspective the land-use system is the result of coevolution between society and nature, representing a successive embodiment of ethical principles corresponding to different periods in history. Ethical principles, understood in this study as the main values in which social and spiritual life is rooted, emerge from and are shaped by a process of dialogue between the local worldview and external historical influences. The degree of differentiation among ethical values corresponding to different stages of local history greatly depends on the type of cognitive competence developed by members of a community. The interplay between cognitive competence and concrete social action develops through a system of rotating duties aimed at lifelong learning and development of social competence derived from the ethical principles of the Andean worldview. The equilibrium between cognitive and social competencies creates social coherence, which was and still is necessary for withstanding moments of crisis and conflict. The learning process evolve from single- to double-loop learning, meaning that an individualized understanding of the epistemological basis of ethical values becomes a clear priority. This allows time to experiment with the land-use system as part of a social learning process. The positive conditions supporting social learning processes were a nondualistic worldview, local autonomy and self-determination in social and religious–spiritual life, territorial and productive organization, low levels of formalization of norms, deliberative rather than formal democratic decision making, and a combination of increasingly reflective attitudes and development of specific social competencies among all members of the community." Mountain Research and Development 2003, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 263-270 Available from: BioOne
Native trees and shrubs for the revitalization of sustainbale land use in rural communities in the Tunari National Park, Bolivia
Brandt, Regine
Poster presented at ZIL's Annual Conference 2006 - Trees for poverty alleviation. Download
Bolivia. Una frágil tregua
de la Fuente, Manuel
El artículo examina la situación de enfrentamientos en la que se encuentra Bolivia. Enfrentamientos que están conociendo una frágil tregua que permitirá la confrontación electoral de diciembre del 2005. ¿Pero cómo se ha llegado a esta situación de empate social, que se traduce en una serie de conflictos? y ¿cuál podría ser el desenlace de este empate? Son algunas de las preguntas que el artículo trata de responder. L'Ordinaire Latino-américain, Vues d’hier, enjeux d’aujourd’hui (avril-septembre 2005): N° 200-201 Order from: L'Ordinaire Latino-américain
Gemeinsames staatlich-kollektives Wassermanagement in Cochabamba, Bolivien
Hoffmann, Sabine
In: Schweizerisches Jahrbuch für Entwicklungspolitik. Öffentlich-private Partnerschaften und internationale Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, Band 24, Nr. 2. 2005. iuéd, Genf, pp. 183-194. Download
Innovación Tecnológica, Soberanía y Seguridad Alimentaría
Delgado, Freddy
This book presents a critical analysis of the potentials and constraints of past and present models of developing agrarian innovations. These innovations had low to non-existent impacts on the sovereignty and security of food production. They focused on linking indigenous food production to a market economy that was not able to guarantee reasonable prices to farmers, preventing them from covering production costs and basic needs for their livelihoods. The attempt to overcome this one-sided policy in order to develop agrarian innovations in the context of a dialogue among scientific, indigenous and popular forms of knowledge was presented as an institutional experience developed by AGRUCO. This experience was developed during the last 15 years with active support from the Centre for Development and Environment, NCCR North-South and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. Read an extensive account of the book launch by Stephan Rist
La cogestion étatique-communautaire de l'eau à Cochabamba (Bolivie)
Hoffmann, Sabine
"L’article de Sabine Hoffmann aborde la notion de partenariat par le biais des régimes institutionnels de propriété et de possession. Aux yeux de l’auteure, les partenariats posent inéluctablement des conditions institutionnelles qui définissent les droits, les obligations, les privilèges et les non-droits des acteurs concernés. L’article expose les différentes logiques auxquelles sont soumis les acteurs dans le cadre de partenariats : rationalité économique (liée à une économie de propriété) ou raison écosociale (liée à une économie de possession). Quelle logique guide les acteurs ? La réponse apportée par l’auteure s’appuie sur une étude de cas menée à Cochabamba, en Bolivie, concernant l’accès à l’eau potable." Annuaire suisse de politique de développement 2005, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 179-190 Download
Traditional ecological knowledge, land use and ecosystem diversity in the Tunari National Park (Bolivia)
Boillat, Sebastien
PhD Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland This thesis has the overall goal of contributing to the development of the emerging approach of “nature-society hybrids” by setting the fundaments for a dialogue between the needs of biodiversity conservation and the needs and claims of indigenous and traditional people. It is based on the assumption that indigenous and traditional people may not be conservationists “by default”, because the concept of biodiversity conservation has emerged from a concern of modern science and global policy in the developed world that they do not share necessarily. Nevertheless, indigenous communities may have traditional land use practices that are at the same time deeply rooted in their traditional knowledge and specific cultural worldview, and highly relevant for the conservation of biodiversity. The main objective of the thesis was to analyze the links between traditional ecological knowledge, land use and the diversity of ecosystems, as a basis for the promotion of sustainable development, understood as results emerging from the dialogue between scientific and traditional ecological knowledge. Download (9.5 MB)
Neo-liberal Arguments, Technology and Public Institutions
Bolay, Jean-Claude
TRIALOG 2004, No. 80, pp. 41-44 Download
From scientific monoculture to intra- and inter-cultural dialogue
Rist, Stephan
Reshaping sciences, policies and practices for Endogenous Sustainable Development In: Haverkort B, Reijntjes C, editors. 2006. Moving Worldviews – Reshaping sciences, policies and practices for endogenous sustainable development. COMPAS Series on Worldviews and Sciences No. 4. Netherlands. pp. 312-319. Download from: Moving Worldviews
Factors from Diffusion of Innovations Theory Influencing the Adoption of Solar Water Disinfection
Heri, Simone
Master's Thesis, University of Zurich, Switzerland "In this study we examine a broad array of theory-based factors derived from diffusion research that influence the current use and intention to use of solar water disinfection (SODIS), a simple, low-cost technology for the treatment of drinking water on household-level. The perceived attributes of an innovation, the nature of the social system in which an innovation is diffused, the extend of change agents’ promotion efforts in diffusing the innovation and the nature of the communication channels were operationalized resulting in 16 variables to assess the use and intent to use of the innovation of SODIS. The aim of the study is to determine the influence of each factor and its predictive power. [...]" Download
Gouvernance des forêts et conservation en Bolivie
Hufty, Marc
In: Auroi C, Milbert I., Hufty M. Où va la Bolivie?
Gobernanza de los bosques y conservación en Bolivia
Hufty, Marc
In: Marc Hufty, Claude Auroi and Manuel de la Fuente, editors. 2005. ¿A dónde va Bolivia? Gobernancia, gobernabilidad y democratización, La Paz, Plural Editores; NCCR North-South, pp. 149-181 Available for purchase from: Libros Andinos
Atlas - Amenazas, vulnerabilidades y riesgos de Bolivia
Quiroga, R.B.
A unique atlas presenting threats, vulnerabilities and risks in Bolivia has just been published (in Spanish). The atlas is considered a highly relevant instrument for improving the management and mitigation of the ever-present natural risks in Bolivia. According to Hernan Tuco, Vice-Minister of Civil Defence of the Bolivian Government, the atlas will serve as a “reference to the national, departmental and municipal authorities for taking decisions regarding containment and prevention of major disasters”. Within the framework of the NCCR North-South, the atlas is a direct result of the Transversal Package Project (TPP) on ‘Social Vulnerability and Resilience’ and a related PAMS (Partnership Actions) project. The atlas was developed as a joint-venture between the Vice-ministry of Civil Defence and researchers of the NCCR North-South, OXFAM and the Foundation for Participatory Communitarian Development (Fundepco). The team of authors were lead by Luis Salamanca of the NCCR North-South. For more details see ‘Agencia Boliviana de Informacion’ and ‘La Razon’. To order the atlas, please contact Manuel De La Fuente in Bolivia or Stephan Rist in Switzerland.
Citoyenneté "autochtone" et réformes environnementales en Amazonie bolivienne
Bottazzi, Patrick
L’objectif de cette communication est de nous questionner sur les causes et la nature des changements sociopolitiques encourus ces dernières années dans les sociétés d’Amazonie bolivienne, en présentant une approche, quelques données contextuelles et une brève étude de cas : la Réserve de Biosphère et Territoire Indigène Pilón Lajas. Revue Lazos 2005, No. 7 Available for purchase from: Lazos
Movimientos sociales y ciudadania
de la Fuente, Manuel
La Paz, NCCR North South, IUED, Plural
Pratiques urbaines et planification en Amérique Latine
Bolay, Jean-Claude
In: Dansereau F, Navez-Bouchanine F, editors. 2002. Gestion du développment urbain et stratégies résidentielles des habitants. Paris: L'Harmattan (Collection Villes et Entreprises) Order from: L'Harmattan
Fortalecimiento de la organización comunal
Serrano, Elvira
"Fortalecimiento de la organización comunal: estrategia para la conservación y regeneración de bosques andino" in: Delgado F, Serrano E, Bilbao J. editors. 2004. Agroforesteria en Latinoaméria: Experiencias Locales, Cochabamba, MALEA- AGRUCO, pp. 41-50. Order from: agruco.org
Diálogo intra e intercientífico entre comunidades ontológicas
Rist, Stephan
In: Delgado F, Escobar C, editors. 2006. Diálogo intercultural e intercientífico para el fortalecimiento de las ciencias de los pueblos indígenas originarios. Serie Cosmovisión y Ciencias No. 2. La Paz, Bolivia. pp. 87-100. Order from: Compasnet.org
Décentralisation, services publics et mobilisation populaire en Bolivie
de la Fuente, Manuel
Les mécanismes participatifs qui accompagnent le processus de décentralisation en Bolivie ont permis un accès plus important, notamment en ce qui concerne les populations rurales, paysannes et indigènes, aux services publics de base. Cet exposé examine quand et dans quelles conditions les populations marginalisées et exclues depuis toujours, ont obtenu un meilleur accès aux services publics. Par ailleurs, les lois liées au processus de décentralisation et d’autres lois connexes ont favorisé un renforcement des organisations populaires. Cet exposé s’efforce également de comprendre ces processus, en se demandant pourquoi une politique de décentralisation, conçue à partir de l'Etat et des organismes internationaux, a ce type de conséquences qui, bien évidemment, n'étaient pas désirées par l'Etat. Download
La violence collective en Bolivie
de la Fuente, Manuel
De la Fuente M. 2008. La violence collective en Bolivie. In: Corten A (dir.) La violence dans l'imaginaire latino-américain. Karthala/Presse de l'université du Québec, pp. 105-116. Download
On the road through the Bolivian Amazon: A multi-level land governance analysis of deforestation
Bottazzi, Patrick
Studies show that collective property rights are more flexible than individual rights and improve sustainable forest management. Our case study in Bolivia (Beni department) confirms this, but shows that collective rights were granted in areas unfavourable to intensive land use. Collectively held land in Andean settlements appears less affected by deforestation than individually held land. Historical analysis of the region shows that the distribution of property rights results from political processes based on economic, spatial, and environmental strategies defined by multiple stakeholders. Collective titles were distributed to remote communities with less productive potential. Land rights are thus a secondary factor in local forest cover change and result from political compromises based on population, accessibility, environmental perceptions, and expected production/extraction incomes. Bottazzi P, Dao H. Accepted. On the road through the Bolivian Amazon: A multi-level land governance analysis of deforestation. Land Use Policy 30(1):137–146. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264837712000440